Explain how Cost-Volume benefit (CVP) analysis is concerned planning because that a rewarding businessDescribe the relationship in between sales volume, costs and also profitDescribe the concept of costs habits (variable vs. Fixed)List the presumptions behind a CVP analysisCalculate a CVP analysis using a step-by-step processExplain the ide of a Break-Even PointCalculate break-even points because that both sales/revenue dollars and variety of units sold.

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CVP analysisrevenues and also sales volumecontribution margin revenue statementcontribution margincontribution margin percentagevariable costs/ expensesfixed costs/expensesoperating incomebreak-even pointbreak-even salesbreak-even variety of units sold


CVP analysis looks in ~ the effect of sales volume variations on costs and also operating profit. The analysis is based upon the classification of costs as variable (expenses that differ in direct proportion to sales volume) or fixed (expenses that remain unchanged end the long term, regardless of whether of the sales volume). Accordingly, operating income is identified as follows:

Operating revenue = Sales – Variable expenses Fixed Costs

A CVP evaluation is provided to recognize the sales volume compelled to achieve a stated profit level. Therefore, the evaluation reveals the break-even point where the sales volume returns a network operating revenue of zero and also the sales cutoff amount the generates the an initial dollar the profit.

Cost-volume profit evaluation is vital tool provided to guide managerial, financial and investment decisions.

Cost-Volume benefit Analysis

Contribution Margin and also Contribution Margin Percentage

The very first step forced to do a CVP analysis is to display screen the revenue and also expense heat items in a donation Margin income Statement and compute the contribution Margin Ratio.

A streamlined Contribution Margin revenue Statement classifies the heat items and also ratios together follows:

Contribution Margin revenue StatementTable 15.1 contribution Margin income Statement

Statement Item


Percent of Income


(Deduction) Variable Costs

(Total) Contribution Margin

(Deduction) resolved Costs

(Total) operation Income











Table 15.1 contribution Margin income Statement. The table mirrors the percent of income for sales, donation margin, and also operating earnings are observed as totals, after ~ variable and fixed cost deductions.

* Contribution Margin Percentage

The method relies ~ above the complying with assumptions:

Sales price per unit is constant (i.e. Each unit is marketed at the same price);Variable costs per unit are continuous (i.e. Each unit costs the very same amount);Total fixed costs are continuous (i.e. Expenses such as rent, building taxes or insurance do not vary with sales end the long term);Everything developed is sold;Costs are only influenced because task changes.

The equation: Operating earnings = Sales – Variable prices Fixed Costs

Sales = units sold X price per unit

Variable prices = units sold X price per unit

The an initial equation above can be broadened to to mark the contents of every line item:

Operating income = (units offered X price per unit) – (units marketed X cost per unit) – resolved Cost

The contribution margin is identified as Sales – change Costs. Therefore,

Contribution Margin ($) = (units sold X price per unit) – (units offered X cost per unit)

And the contribution Margin Percentage (CM%) is computed together follows:

CM% = contribution Margin ($) / Sales ($)

Accordingly, the complying with is another way to express the relationship in between contribution margin, cm percentage, and also sales:

Contribution Margin $ = Sales $ X contribution Margin %

The contribution margin percentage shows the section each disagreement of sales generates come pay for fixed costs (in our example, each dollar of sales generates $.40 that is accessible to covering the addressed costs).

As variable costs change in direct proportion (i.e. In %) of revenue, the contribution margin also changes in straight proportion come revenues, However, the donation margin percent remains the same. Example:

Revenues $100 – (20 devices X $5)

Var. Costs  $60 – 60% (20 devices X 60%)

CM $40 – 40%

The equation above demonstrates 100 percent of revenue ($100) minus $60 from variable costs equals $40 donation margin. The equation listed below demonstrates profits doubling come $200 and deducting fixed costs of $120, that outcomes in $80 contribution margin.

If profits double:

Revenues $200 – (40 units X $5)

Fixed expenses $120  – 60% (40 devices X 60%)

CM $80 – 40%

Targeted Profit

CVP analysis is carried out to identify a revenue level forced to attain a specified profit. The revenue might be express in number of units offered or in dissension amounts.

Income StatementTable 15.2 earnings StatementStatement ItemAmountPercent the Income

Sales (20 systems X $5)

(Deduction) Variable prices (20 devices X $3)

(Total) Contribution Margin

(Deduction) solved Costs

(Total) Operating income











Table 15.2 income Statement. The table mirrors an earnings statement that observes total income from sales, donation margin full after variable expense deduction, and also operating income complete after fixed expense deduction.

How much sales is forced to attain a $20 profit? This can be answered by recognize the number of units sold or the sales disagreement amount.

Required number of units sold:

Profit = earnings – Variable expenses – solved Costs

$20 = (Units offered X $5) – (Units offered X $3) – $30$50 = (Units sold X $5) – (Units marketed X $3)

Sales deducted indigenous Variable prices is the meaning of contribution margin

$50 = (Units Sold) X ($5-$3)

($5-$3=$2 i m sorry is the $ contribution margin every unit)

$50/$2 = 25 devices sold needed to achieve $20 in profit

Units sold to achieve targeted benefit = hugefrac( extFixed prices Dollar + Targeted profit Dollar) extContribution Margin Dollar every UnitThe previous equation reads: units marketed to accomplish targeted profit, amounts to fixed expenses dollars, add to targeted profit dollar, split by contribution margin dollar per unit


Income StatementTable 15.3 income StatementStatement ItemDollar AmountPercent of Income

Sales (25 devices X $5)

(Deduction) Variable expenses (25 systems X $3)

(Total) Contribution Margin (25 units X $2)

(Deduction) solved Costs

(Total) Targeted Operating income











Table 15.3 income Statement. The table reflects an earnings statement the observes sales, donation margin, and targeted operating income totals, after ~ variable and fixed cost deductions.

Note: if Operating Income doubled, (from $10 to $20) only 5 extr units sold (+25%) were compelled as just variable costs readjusted while fixed prices remained at $30.

Required sales dissension amountProfit $ = sales $ – Variable prices $Fixed prices $andSales $ – Variable costs $ = Contribution Margin $So,Profit $ = Contribution Margin $ – Fixed expenses $

We saw earlier that ContributionMargin $ deserve to be expressed as: Sales X Contribution Margin %

Contribution Margin $ = (Sales $ x Contribution Margin %)

Profit $ = (Sales $ donation Margin%) – Fixed expenses $

Profit $ + Fixed expenses $ = (Sales $ x contribution Margin %)

(Targeted profit $ + Fixed price $) / contribution Margin % = Sales $

The previous equation because that Sales $ is calculate by including Targeted profit $ and also Fixes expense $, divided by contribution Margin percentage


Sales forced to accomplish $20 in target profit:

($20 + $30) / 40% = $125

The instance equation reads: $20 + $30, separated by 40 percent amounts to $125

CVP recipe to it is in remembered:

Required sales based upon units offered to yield a targeted operation income:

Required variety of units sold For Targeted benefit = 

hugefrac( extFixed prices Dollar + Targeted benefit Dollar) extContribution Margin Dollar every Unit

The previous equation reads: Required number of units sold for targeted profit amounts to fixed costs dollar plus targeted profit dollar, divided by contribution Margin dollar every unit.

Required sales based on contribution margin percent to productivity a targeted operating income:

Required dissension Sales for Targeted benefit =

 hugefrac( extFixed prices Dollar + Targeted benefit Dollar) extContribution Margin Percentage

The previos equation reads: required dollar sales for targeted profit equals fixed expenses dollar to add targeted benefit dollar, separated by contribution Margin percentage.

Break-even Point

The break-even allude is got to when complete costs and total profits are equal, generating no gain or ns (Operating income of $0). Organization operators usage the calculate to recognize how numerous product systems they need to sell at a offered price allude to break also or to develop the first dollar of profit.

Break-even analysis is likewise used in cost/profit analyses to verify just how much incremental sales (or revenue) is necessary to justify new investments.

The adhering to graph illustrates the break-even allude based on the variety of covers offered in a restaurant

Figure 15.1 Break-even point based top top the number of covers marketed in a restaurant

Long description:A heat graph through covers sold on the x axis. The x axis starts at 0, and also has incriment mite in intervals the 50, enhancing to a best of 400. Over there is a label for loss indicated from the start of the x axis ( 0 ) come the fifth interval mite ( 250 ). Over there is a label for profit suggested on the x axis starting after the 250 marker. The Y axis is labeled because that revenues, also starting at 0, incrementing by one thousand dollars every marker, to a best of 6 thousand dollars. Over there are 4 lines graphed. Among which is a heat representing full sales, which rises at straight rate, starting point (0 , $0), and also ending allude (400, $6000). Another line represents the total costs, which likewise increases in ~ a linear rate. Its starting point is (0 , $2500), and also its ending suggest is (400, $5000). The total sales and also total costs lines that space graphed, crossing at the suggest (250, $4000) i beg your pardon is labeled together the break even point. The intersection that these two lines emphasize (as the x axis profit brand does, which was mentioned earlier in this description) that profit occurs after 250 covers space sold. A fixed cost line is stood for in this graph together well.Starting allude ( 0 , $2500), and also ending allude (400, $2500). Mirroring that fixed costs are static and not dependency on covers sold. The last line represents change costs, starting point ( 0, $0) and ending point (400, $2500). An alert the ending suggest of the full costs line amounts to the resolved cost and variable price totals.End long description.

The Sales heat starts at the origin (0 revenue because that 0 covers) and grows in direct proportion come the number of covers sold;Variable expenses grow in direct proportion come Sales yet at a slow rate. The line starts in ~ the origin due to the fact that no variable cost arises if no sale occurs;The Fixed prices line remains flat (unchanged regardless of whether of the number of covers sold). The operation incurs Fixed costs such as rent even if it is the operation operates (is open for business) or not;Total cost grows at the same rate as change Costs. The complete Cost minimum is represented by the Fixed prices line;The Break-Even suggest occurs where the full Sales line the cross the complete Costs line. In this illustration, the operation starts being lucrative when offering exceeds 250 covers.

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Computing the Break-Even Point

Computing the break-even point is tantamount to detect the sales the yield a targeted benefit of zero.


The average check (selling price per cover) for the Roadside Exotic BBQ Restaurant is $16. The restaurant averages 85 covers sold a work or 2,250 covers per month. The restaurant currently loses money as indicated in the complying with statement: