Neo-Freudian philosophies to the study of personality both increased on and also countered Freud"s initial theories.
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Analyze the contributions of significant Neo-Freudian thinkers to the field of personality psychology
Key point out Neo-Freudians, such together Adler, Horney, Jung, and Erikson, agreed v Freud the childhood experiences matter; however, they broadened on Freud"s principles by concentrating on the prominence of sociological and social influences in enhancement to biological influences. two of Carl Jung"s major contributions were his principles of the collective unconscious and the persona. Karen Horney’s theories concentrated on "unconscious anxiety," which she believed stemmed from at an early stage childhood experience of unmet needs, loneliness, and/or isolation.
Neo-Freudian approaches to Personality
Although Sigmund Freud added a an excellent deal come the ar of psychology through his psychoanalytic theory of personality, his work did not go without scrutiny. Many criticized his theories because that being overly concentrated on sexuality; end the years because his work, countless other thinkers have adjusted and built on his concepts to kind new theory of personality. This theorists, described as Neo-Freudians, usually agreed v Freud the childhood experiences are important, yet they reduced his focus on sex and sexuality. Instead of taking a strict biological strategy to the breakthrough of personality (as Freud go in his emphasis on separation, personal, instance evolutionary drives), lock focused much more holistically on just how the social setting and culture influence personality development.
Freud and also his followers
Several that the psychologists who studied Freud"s theories worked directly with Freud himself at Clark University. This photo shows Carl Jung (front row, right) through Freud (front row, left) and also other colleagues.
Many psychologists, scientists, and philosophers have actually made meaningful enhancements to the psychoanalytic research of personality. Four particularly notable Neo-Freudians space Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Carl Jung, and also Karen Horney.
Alfred Adler to be the very first to explore and develop a an extensive social concept of the psychodynamic person. He established a school of psychology referred to as individual psychology, which concentrates on our drive to compensate because that feelings that inferiority. Adler proposed the ide of the inferiority complex, which describes a who feelings the they lack worth and don’t measure as much as the criter of rather or of society. He also believed in the prominence of social connections, see childhood advance as emerging through social development rather than via the sexual stages outlined by Freud. From these ideas, Adler identified three fundamental social tasks that every one of us should experience: occupational jobs (careers), societal jobs (friendship), and also love work (finding one intimate partner for a long-term relationship).
Erik Erikson is prominent for having proposed the psychosocial concept of development, which suggests that an individual’s personality develops throughout the lifespan based on a series of social relationships—a departure from Freud’s an ext biology-oriented view. In his psychosocial theory, Erikson emphasized the social relationship that are essential at each stage of personality development, in comparison to Freud’s focus on sex. Erikson established eight stages, each of which represents a dispute or developmental task. The advancement of a healthy and balanced personality and a feeling of competence depend on the successful completion of each task.
Carl Jung adhered to in Adler"s footsteps by arising a concept of personality referred to as analytical psychology. Among Jung"s major contributions to be his idea that the collective unconscious, which he reputed a "universal" variation of Freud"s personal unconscious, holding mental patterns, or memory traces, that are usual to every one of us (Jung, 1928). These genealogical memories, i beg your pardon Jung referred to as archetypes, are represented by global themes as expressed through assorted cultures" literature and also art, as well as people"s dreams. Jung also proposed the concept of the persona, introduce to a type of "mask" that we take on based top top both our mindful experiences and our collective unconscious. Jung believed this persona offered as a compromise between who we really room (our true self) and what culture expects united state to be; us hide those components of ourselves that space not aligned through society’s expectation behind this mask.
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Karen Horney was one of the first women trained together a Freudian psychoanalyst. Horney’s theories concentrated on "unconscious anxiety," i beg your pardon she believed stemmed from at an early stage childhood experiences of unmet needs, loneliness, and/or isolation. She theorized three layouts of coping that children adopt in relationship to anxiety: relocating toward people, relocating away indigenous people, and also moving versus people.
Horney was likewise influential in the development of feminism within the ar of psychodynamics. Freud has actually been extensively critiqued for his virtually exclusive emphasis on men and for what some perceive together a condescension toward women; because that example, Horney disagreed with the Freudian idea the girls have "penis envy" and are jealousy of male organic features. According to Horney, any type of jealousy is many likely as result of the greater privileges that males are often given, meaning that the differences in between men’s and also women’s individualities are as result of the dynamics of society rather 보다 biology. She further argued that men have "womb envy" because they cannot provide birth.