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12.2 types of Outlines

Learning Objectives

specify three varieties of outlines: working outline, full-sentence outline, and also speaking outline. Determine the advantages of using notecards to current your speaking outline.

When we comment on outlining, we room actually concentrating on a series of outlines instead of a single one. Outlines space designed come evolve throughout your speech ready process, therefore this section will discuss how you progression from a working outline to a full-sentence rundown and, finally, a speaking outline. Us will likewise discuss exactly how using notecards for her speaking outline can be valuable to you as a speaker.

You are watching: All of the following are types of outlines except __________.

Working Outline

A working synopsis is an summary you usage for occurring your speech. It undergoes many changes on its method to completion. This is the rundown where girlfriend lay the end the simple structure of your speech. Friend must have actually a general and certain purpose; an introduction, consisting of a grabber; and a concrete, particular thesis statement and preview. You likewise need three main points, a conclusion, and also a list of references.

One strategy for start your working outline is to begin by inputting in her labels for each the the elements. Later you have the right to fill in the content.

When you look ahead to the full-sentence outline, friend will notification that each of the three main points moves from the general to the particular. Specifically, each main suggest is a claim, followed by particular information the supports that case so the the audience will perceive its validity. Because that example, because that a speech around coal mining safety, your an initial main point might focus on the idea that coal mining is a hazardous occupation. Friend might start by make a really general claim, such as “Coal mining is among the most hazardous occupations in the joined States,” and then become more specific by giving statistics, classic quotations, or instances to support your major claim.

A working outline enables you to work-related out the kinks in your message. For instance, let’s say did you do it made the insurance claim that coal mining is a hazardous occupation yet you cannot discover authoritative proof as support. Now you must reexamine the main suggest to evaluate its validity. You could have to readjust that main point in stimulate to have the ability to support it. If you execute so, however, you need to make certain the brand-new main suggest is a logical part of the thesis statement–three main points–conclusion sequence.

The working overview shouldn’t be believed of a “rough copy,” but as a cautious step in the advance of her message. It will take time come develop. Below is an instance of a functioning outline:

Name: Anomaly might McGillicuddy

Topic: smart dust

General Purpose: come inform

Specific Purpose: To educate a group of science students around the potential of clever dust

Main Ideas:

clever dust is an assembly the microcomputers. Smart dust deserve to be provided by the military—no, no—smart dust might be an huge asset in concealed military operations. (That’s better because the is much more clear and precise.) clever dust could likewise have applications to everyday life.

Introduction: (Grabber) (fill in later)

(Thesis Statement) hence far, researcher hypothesize that smart dust might be provided for whatever from tracking patient in hospitals to early warnings of herbal disasters and also defending against bioterrorism.

(Preview) Today, i’m going to define what clever dust is and the assorted applications smart dust has actually in the close to future. To aid us understand the small of the all, we will very first examine what clever dust is and also how that works. We will then examine some army applications of smart dust. And we will end by stating some nonmilitary applications of clever dust.

(Transition) (fill in later)

Main suggest I: Dr. Kris Pister, a professor in the robotics lab at the university of California in ~ Berkeley, originally conceived the idea of clever dust in 1998 as component of a task funded through the Defense progressed Research Projects agency (DARPA).

(supporting point) (supporting point)

(Transition) (fill in later)

Main point II: since smart dust was originally conceptualized under a provide from DARPA, military uses of smart dust have actually been commonly theorized and also examined.

(supporting point) (supporting point)

(Transition) (fill in later)

Main allude III: follow to the smart dust task website, clever dust might quickly come to be a common part of our everyday lives.

(supporting point) (supporting point)

(Transition) (fill in later)

Conclusion: (Bring your message “full circle” and also create a psychologically solve closure.)

This phase of preparation turns out to it is in a good place to go earlier and study whether every the key points are directly related to the thesis statement and also to each other. If so, her message has actually a solid potential because that unity of focus. But if the relationship of among the main points is weak, this is the time to combine it. It will be more daunting later for two reasons: first, the sheer amount of text on her pages will make the intuitive task much more difficult, and second, it becomes increasingly difficult to change things in which you have a huge investment in time and thought.

You have the right to see that this working outline deserve to lay a strong structure for the rest of her message. Its company is visually apparent. As soon as you space confident in the inner unity the your simple message, you can start filling in the supporting points in to decrease detail—that is, from the general (main points) to the particular (supporting points) and then to greater detail. The summary makes the visually evident where info fits. You only must assess your sustaining points come be sure they’re authoritative and directly pertinent to the key points they need to support.

Sometimes transitions it seems ~ troublesome, and that’s no surprising. We regularly omit them when we have informal conversations. Ours conversation partners recognize what us mean due to the fact that of our gestures and also vocal strategies. However, others might not understand what us mean, yet think they do, and so we could never recognize whether they understood us. Even when we include transitions, us don’t usually identify them together transitions. In a speech, however, we have to use efficient transitions together a gateway from one main point to the next. The listener requirements to recognize when a speak is moving from one main point to the next.

In the next type of outline, the full-sentence outline, take it a look at the transitions and also see exactly how they make the listener mindful of the shifting focus to the next main point.

Full-Sentence Outline

Your full-sentence outline must contain complete sentences only. There space several reasons why this sort of summary is important. First, you have actually a full plan of whatever you intended to say to her audience, so that you will certainly not have to struggle through wordings or examples. Second, you have actually a clear idea of just how much time it will take to existing your speech. Third, that contributes a an essential ingredient of an excellent preparation, component of your honest responsibility to her audience. This is just how a full-sentence outline looks:

Name: Anomaly might McGillicuddy

Topic: clever dust

General Purpose: come inform

Specific Purpose: To notify a team of scientific research students around the potential of smart dust.

Main Ideas:

clever dust is an assembly the microcomputers. Smart dust can be an substantial asset in surprise military operations. Clever dust could likewise have applications to daily life.

Introduction: (Grabber) In 2002, famous science fiction writer, Michael Crichton, exit his book Prey, which was about a swarm that nanomachines that were feeding off living tissue. The nanomachines to be solar powered, self-sufficient, and intelligent. Most disturbingly, the nanomachines might work with each other as a swarm as it took over and killed its food in its require for brand-new resources. The technology for this level of sophistication in nanotechnology is surprisingly more science fact than scientific research fiction. In 2000, 3 professors of electrical engineering and also computer scientific research at the college of California in ~ Berkeley, Kahn, Katz, and also Pister, hypothesized in the Journal that Communications and Networks the wireless networks of small microelectromechanical sensors, or MEMS; robots; or devices could detect phenomena including light, temperature, or vibration. By 2004, Fortune Magazine provided “smart dust” together the first in your “Top 10 technology Trends to gambling On.”

(Thesis Statement) Thus much researchers hypothesized that smart dust might be used for every little thing from tracking patient in hospitals to early warnings of herbal disasters and also as a defense against bioterrorism.

(Preview) Today, i’m going to describe what clever dust is and also the miscellaneous applications clever dust has actually in the near future. To assist us understand the tiny of the all, us will an initial examine what smart dust is and how the works. We will certainly then research some armed forces applications of clever dust. And we will finish by discussing some nonmilitary applications of smart dust.

(Transition) To help us recognize smart dust, we will begin by very first examining what smart dust is.

Main point I: Dr. Kris Pister, a professor in the robotics lab at the university of California in ~ Berkeley, initially conceived the idea of clever dust in 1998 as part of a project funded by the Defense progressed Research Projects firm (DARPA).

according to a 2001 short article written by Bret Warneke, Matt Last, Brian Liebowitz, and Kris Pister title “Smart Dust: interacting with a Cubic-Millimeter Computer” released in Computer, Pister’s goal was to develop a machine that contained a integrated sensor, communication device, and also a small computer that could be integrated into a cubic millimeter package.

For comparison purposes, Doug Steel, in a 2005 white paper titled “Smart Dust” written for C. T. Bauer university of business at the college of Houston, provided that a solitary grain of rice has actually a volume of 5 cubic millimeters.

every individual piece of dust, dubbed a mote, would then have actually the capability to communicate with other motes and also supercomputers. Together Steve Lohr composed in the January 30, 2010, edition of the New York Times in an write-up titled “Smart Dust? no Quite, however We’re acquiring There,” clever dust can eventually covers “Tiny digital sensors, strewn approximately the glove, gathering all sorts of information and also communicating with powerful computer networks come monitor, measure, and understand the physical people in new ways.”

(Transition) now that we’ve examined what smart dust is, stop switch gears and talk around some that the armed forces applications for smart dust.

Main suggest II: since smart dust was originally conceptualized under a approve from DARPA, armed forces uses of clever dust have been commonly theorized and also examined.

According to the clever dust website, clever dust can eventually be offered for “battlefield surveillance, contract monitoring, transportation monitoring, scud hunting” and other clear armed forces applications.

Probably the number one advantage of clever dust in the military environment is its security abilities.

significant Scott Dickson, in a Blue Horizons paper written because that the united state Air Force center for Strategy and also Technology’s Air war College, sees clever dust together helping the military in battlespace awareness, homeland security, and weapons of mass devastation (WMD) identification. Furthermore, major Dickson additionally believes it may be feasible to develop smart dust that has the capacity to defeat interactions jamming equipment produced by international governments, i beg your pardon could aid the US military not only communicate among itself, but could also increase communications with civilians in military combat zones. according to a 2010 article written by Jessica Griggs in new Scientist, one of the first benefits of smart dust could be very early defense warning for room storms and also other debris that could be catastrophic.

(Transition) currently that we’ve explored some of the army benefits of clever dust, stop switch gears and also see exactly how smart dust may have the ability to have an influence on our everyday lives.

Main point III: follow to the clever dust job website, smart dust might quickly become a common component of our day-to-day lives.

Everything indigenous pasting clever dust particles to ours finger tips to create a virtual computer keyboard come inventory regulate to product quality regulate have been questioned as feasible applications for smart dust.

Steve Lohr, in his 2010 New York Times article, wrote, “The applications for sensor-based computing, professionals say, include structures that control their own energy use, bridges that sense motion and also metal exhaustion to tell designers they require repairs, cars that track web traffic patterns and also report potholes, and fruit and vegetable shipments that tell grocers as soon as they ripen and begin come spoil.”

Medically, according to the smart dust website, clever dust could assist disabled people interface through computers.

Theoretically, we might all it is in injected through smart dust, which relays info to our physicians and also detects adverse alters to our body instantly. Clever dust can detect the microscopic formations of center cells or alert us once we’ve been infected by a bacterium or virus, which might speed up treatment and prolong all of our lives.

(Transition) Today, we’ve explored what clever dust is, exactly how smart dust can be utilized by the us military, and how smart dust could affect all of our lives in the close to future.

Conclusion: While smart dust is easily transferring from science fiction to scientific research fact, specialists agree that the complete potential of clever dust will probably not take place until 2025. Clever dust is certainly in our close to future, however swarms of clever dust eating people as was illustrated in Michael Crichton’s 2002 novel, Prey, isn’t reality. However, similar to any technical advance, there space definite ethical considerations and worries concerned smart dust. Even Dr. Kris Pister’s smart dust task website admits that together smart dust becomes an ext readily available, among the trade-offs will certainly be privacy. Pister responds to these critiques through saying, “As one engineer, or a scientist, or a hair stylist, everyone needs to advice what they execute in terms of its optimistic and an adverse effect. If I assumed that the negative of functioning on this task were higher than or even comparable to the positives, ns wouldn’t be functioning on it. Together it transforms out, ns think the the potential benefits of this modern technology far outweigh the risks to an individual privacy.”


Crichton, M. (2002). Prey. Brand-new York, NY: Harper Collins.

Griggs, J. (2010, February 6). Smart dust to administer solar early warning defense. New Scientist, 205(2746), 22.

Kahn, J. M., Katz, R. H., & Pister, K. S. J. (2000). Emerging challenges: cell phone networking because that “smart dust.” Journal that Communications and also Networks, 2, 188–196.

Lohr, S. (2010, January 30). Smart dust? not quite, however we’re getting there. New York Times. Retrieved native

Pister, K., Kahn, J., & Boser, B. (n.d.). Smart dust: Autonomous sensing and also communication in ~ the cubic millimeter. Retrieved native

Steel, D. (2005, March). Clever dust: UH ISRC an innovation briefing. Retrieved native

Vogelstein, F., Boyle, M., Lewis, P., Kirkpatrick, D., Lashinsky, A.,…Chen, C. (2004, February 23). 10 technology trends to bet on. Fortune, 149(4), 74–88.

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Warneke, B., Last, M., Liebowitz, B., & Pister, K. S. J. (2001). Smart dust: connecting with a cubic millimeter computer. Computer, 31, 44–51.