1800-1876. As the country expanded westward, the unresolved worry of slavery can no much longer be ignored. As long as slavery was an institution minimal to a grasp of southern states, many in the country seemed willing to wait the end its eventual demise. V growth and the opportunity for an increased slave economy, the battle over the vision the America"s future lugged the Union come the brink that destruction. Despite attempts to avoid it, a 4 year war was combated that tore the country apart. An extremely costly victory by the pressures for the Union and also the assassination of a president, lovely by many, left part in the nation in no mood for reconciliation. Failed attempts to totally embrace freed slaves right into the promise the democracy -- and to reconstruct an unrepentant and devastated south -- left the country scarred for an additional century and beyond.

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1. Social-Economic differences between North and South.2. States" rights versus federal Authority.3. Development of Slavery.
One that the reasons of the civil War. In the South, the economic situation was dependence on King Cotton and also slave labor. North criticism was viewed as an strike on Southerners" entire way of life.In the North, economy was an ext industrial than agricultural and based on complimentary labor. Modernity and also progress meant there to be no future because that the feudal southern society.
One of the reasons of the civil War. In the South, they thought in the doctrine of nullification -- that the states might nullify commonwealth laws.In the North, castle rejected nullification. They thought the structure made federal government supreme.
One the the reasons of the polite War.In the South, cotton exhausted the floor of the "Old South" so expansion was an essential to the South"s survival. Brand-new slave states were admitted right into the Union such together Missouri, Kansas and also Texas.In the North, after ~ the growth of slavery westward v the admittance of the new slave states, they wonder if the United claims would ever rid chin of slavery. They want no an ext slave states, and California was admitted together a complimentary state in 1850.
The dependency on slavery and cotton produced a distinct Southern economy.The breakthrough of the "Cotton South" led to sectionalism.
The Missouri compromise of 1820 limited the spread of slavery.The addition of Texas in 1837 added potential servant territory come the unified States.The Mexican war in 1848 to be criticized together a proslavery, expansionist war.
The compromise of 1850 failed to hold the nation together. California to be admitted together a free state and also a fugitive slave regulation was passed.In the 1850s, slavery and also sectionalism continued to threaten the Union.The failure of the Kansas-Nebraska act in 1854 led to bloodshed end the development of slavery and also raised the worry of popular sovereignty.The Dred Scott decision fail to deal with the slavery question. Slaves were not citizens and could no sue.The election in 1860 of Lincoln, a sectional candidate, do secession inevitable.The Confederate states of America were formed which had thirteen southerly states.
1861-1865. The North and also South prepared for war.The North had an in its entirety superiority in manpower, firepower, and also economic resources.The southern had benefits in leadership and territory.
The Union blockade economically strangled the South.The defeat at Gettysburg in 1863 ended the Southern opportunities for international recognition.Economic and also military weaknesses, along with a ravaged South, brought about Lee"s surrender at Appomattox in 1865.
1865-1876. Complying with the polite War, the economic, political, social and military repair of the south was necessary.
The president and also Congress differed on exactly how to rebuild the South.The Presidential setup emphasized tolerance for the defeated South.The Congressional, radical, arrangement emphasized the use of military force in dealing with the South prefer a overcame territory.
The reconstruction effort was under Radical control from 1866 to 1876. Throughout this time, the 14th and 15th Amendments to be passed, the civil civil liberties bills to be passed, and also military preeminence supported Radical Reconstruction. Chairman Johnson to be impeached because that opposing Radical Reconstruction.
"With Malice towards None." Espoused by Abraham Lincoln and also Andrew Johnson.Included:1. An elegance plan. The Southerners were pardoned.2. The Confederate States have to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment which nullifies state secession ordinances.3. The South need to repudiate all debts owed by the Union to the Confederate states.4. Provisional governors were to defend the civil liberties of freedmen.
"Punish the South." Espoused by Thaddeus Stevens and also Charles Sumner. Included:1. South separated into 5 military districts.2. States must ratify the Fourteenth Amendment providing equal legal rights to freedmen.3. State constitutions must include a insurance of complete suffrage come freedmen.4. The 15th revised - The appropriate to vote for freedmen.
The discussed election the 1876 ended Radical reconstruction with the choice of Rutherford B. Hayes.
Once Radical reconstruction ended, the led to:1. Social justice because that blacks got a setback.2. The nationwide commitment come equal possibility was delay 100 years.3. Jim raven laws and Black codes further restricted Black rights.
1. Fort Sumter2. Very first Battle of Bull Run3. Antietam4. Gettysburg5. Vicksburg6. Sherman"s March come the Sea7. Battle of Appomattox Courthouse
1861. Union: significant Robert Anderson; Confederate: basic P.G.T. Beauregard.Fort bombarded. Surrendered through Anderson.Opening battle of the war.
1861. Union: Gen. Irvin McDowell; Confederate: Gen. Joseph Johnston.Union pressures expected a quick victory and a brief war overall, yet routed by the Confederates, the war would go on.
1862. Union: basic George McClellan; Confederate: Gen. Robert E. LeeThe an initial battle battled on northern soil. McClellan beat ago Lee"s intrusion on the bloodiest solitary day in the war. Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation.
1863. Union: Gen. George Meade. Confederate: Gen. Robert E. Lee.Lee launched a 2nd invasion of the North. Meade refuse to go after Lee and the battle continued. Lincoln ceded his Gettysburg Address. Win at Gettysburg made north victory inevitable.
1863. Union: Gen. Ulysses S. Grant; Confederate: Lt. Gen. Man C. Pemberton. Union victory reduced off the western Theatre from the South and split the confideracy in ~ the Mississippi River.
1864. Union: Maj. Gen. Wilhelm Tecumseh Sherman. Confederate: Lt. Gen. Man Bell Hood.Sherman"s troops recorded Atlanta and also pushed ahead to record Savannah. The brutality of this battles and the burn of Atlanta left a heritage of bitterness toward the North.
1865. Union: Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Confederate: Gen. Robert E. Lee.Final engagement the the war. Finished with Lee"s surrender come Grant.
1876 - 1900. V the Civil battle behind them and an expanding country in front of them, american enthusiastically pursued industrial growth. Industry contributed to brand-new innovations in transportation, further settlement the the nation, the growth of cities, boosted productivity, and new leisure activities.
The industrial advance of the United states was motivated by western expansion. The negotiation of the West was aided through the homestead Act that 1862 and also the transcontinental railroad in 1869.Western industries were based upon mining, cattle and also grain.Farmers and also ranchers cleared up the great Plains.
The industrial development of the United states was greatly broadened by:1. Innovations which supported industrial growth.2. Raw materials and also geographic components which added to regional economic diversity.3. The breakthrough of communication and transportation aided the industrial growth of America.4. Brand-new methods of production such as division of labor, standardized parts, the assembly line, and mass production promoted the expansion of industry.5. Broadening markets at home and abroad encouraged industrial expansion.6. The advancement of the steel, mining, electric, petroleum, textile, and food-processing industries defined the period.
Industrialization reflected changing attitudes and conditions.1. Mechanization and also the manufacturing facility system to be introduced.2. The growth of labor unions result from troubles caused by industrialization.3. Social, economic, and political changes ended up being evident.4. The climb of urban paralleled the industrial growth of America.5. The require for government intervention enhanced -- Sherman and Antritrust Acts and also Workmen"s compensation laws.6. The need for the conservation of organic resources to be a result of the ongoing industrial development of America.
The Sherman and Clayton Antitrust Acts
Restricted the power of giant corporations.

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Laws to protect the working Class
Workmen"s compensation laws, kid labor laws, and regulations on working conditions and minimum earnings were part of the congressional reform motions to enhance the plight that the working man.
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