Learning Objectives

Describe exactly how the physical atmosphere has impacted human task in the region.Outline the various ways in which colonialism has impacted the islands.Explain why the united States has an economic embargo versus the socialist nation of Cuba.Explain how tourism has become the main method of economic breakthrough for most of the Caribbean.Identify the key music genres that have emerged from the Caribbean.

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The areas of center America and South America, consisting of the Caribbean, follow similar colonial trends of invasion, dominance, and advancement by outside European powers. The Caribbean container is often split into the better Antilles and the Lesser Antilles (the larger islands and the smaller islands, respectively). The greater Antilles consists of the four large islands that Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and also Puerto Rico. The Lesser Antilles room in the eastern and also southern region. The Bahamas room technically in the Atlantic Ocean, not in the Caribbean Sea, however they space usually associated with the Caribbean an ar and are regularly affiliated with the Lesser Antilles. Middle America can be separated into 2 geographic areas according to occupational tasks and early american dynamics. The rimland includes the Caribbean islands and also the Caribbean seaside areas of central America. The mainland consists of the inner of Mexico and central America.


Figure 5.26 Caribbean areas of the greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas.


Many that the Caribbean islands experience the rain zero effect. Jamaica has actually as much as a twenty-inch distinction in rainfall in between the phibìc side and also south side of the island since most that the rain falls on the north side, wherein the prevailing winds fight the island. The Blue mountains in the eastern component of the island carry out a rain shadow effect. Puerto Rico has a tropical rain forest on the northeastern part of the island, i m sorry receives a huge amount the rainfall. The rain shadow impact creates semidesert problems on the southwestern next of Puerto Rico due to the fact that the southwestern next receives small rainfall. Short elevation islands such as the Bahamas execute not obtain as lot rain because they are not high sufficient to affect the precipitation trends of rain clouds.


European colonialism in the Caribbean

The Spanish were no the only Europeans to take advantage of colonial expansion in the Caribbean: the English, French, Dutch, and other europe followed. Most of the European early american countries were located on the west shore of Europe, which had actually a seafaring heritage. This consisted of smaller countries such as Denmark, Sweden, and also Belgium. The Caribbean basin became an active region for european ships come enter and vie because that possession of every island.

Many the the Caribbean islands changed hands several times before finally being secured together established colonies (see Table 5.1 “Historical Caribbean Colonizers”). The social traits of each of the european colonizers to be injected into the fabric of the archipelago they colonized; thus, the languages, religions, and economic activities of the colonized islands reflected those of the europe colonizers quite than those that the native human being who had inhabited the archipelago originally. The 4 main colonial powers in the Caribbean to be the Spanish, English, Dutch, and French. Other nations that held possession of various islands at various times were Portugal, Sweden, and also Denmark. The united States ended up being a early american power once they gained Cuba and also Puerto Rico together a an outcome of the Spanish-American War. The us Virgin Islands were purchased indigenous Denmark in 1918. Sweden regulated the island that St. Barthelemy indigenous 1784 to 1878 before trading it back to the French, who had actually been the original colonizer. Portugal originally colonized Barbados before abandoning it to the British.


Table 5.1 historic Caribbean Colonizers

ColonizerEuropean colonies
SpainCuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico
BritishBahamas, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Turks and also Caicos Islands, Antigua, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, Barbados, Virgin Islands, Trinidad and also Tobago, Montserrat, Anguilla, St. Kitts and also Nevis
DutchCuracao, Bonaire, Aruba, St. Eustatius, Saba and Sint Maarten (south half)
FrenchHaiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Boy name (north half), St. Barthelemy
United StatesPuerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Cuba

Colonialism drastically altered the ethnic makeup of the Caribbean; Amerindians to be virtually eliminated after the arrival of Africans, Europeans, and also Asians. The existing social power structure of the Caribbean have the right to be illustrated by the pyramid-shaped graphic the was provided to show social pecking order in Mexico (Figure 5.10 “Socioeconomic classes in Mexico and Most that Latin America”). Those of europe descent room at the top of the pyramid and also control a greater percentage that the wealth and power also though they room a decimal of the population. In the Caribbean, the middle class includes mulattos, or human being with both African and European heritage, many of which encompass managers, businesspeople, and professionals. In part countries, such as Haiti, the decimal mulatto segment of the population makes up the power base and also holds political and also economic benefit over the rest of the nation while the working negative at the bottom the the pyramid comprise most that the population. In the Caribbean, the reduced economic course contains the highest possible percentage of civilization of afri heritage.

Not only was colonialism the car that lugged many afri to the Caribbean through the servant trade, but it lugged many human being from Asia to the Caribbean as well. Once slavery ended up being illegal, the early american powers brought indentured laborers to the Caribbean native their asian colonies. Cuba to be the destination for end one hundred thousand Chinese workers, so Havana can claim the very first Chinatown in the west Hemisphere. Laborers indigenous the British swarms of India and other parts of south Asia arrived by delivery in various British colonies in the Caribbean. At the present time, around 40 percent the the population of Trinidad can insurance claim South eastern heritage and also a huge number follow the Hindu faith.


The higher Antilles


Cuba: A Rimland Experience

The largest island in the better Antilles is Cuba, i m sorry was revolutionized by the strength of colonialism, the transition to plantation agriculture, and also a socialist revolution. The island nation of Cuba is slightly larger than the us state the Kentucky, yet it has an ext than eleven million people, when Kentucky has actually just end 4.2 million. The elongated island has the Sierra Maestra mountains on its eastern end, the Escambray mountains in the center, and also the west Karst region in the west, near Viñales. Short hills and fertile valleys cover more than half the island. The pristine waters the the Caribbean that surround the island make for several of the most attractive tourism places in the Caribbean region.

It has actually been approximated that as many as one hundred thousand Amerindians occupied Cuba when Christopher Columbus very first landed ~ above the island in 1492. Except for brief control by the British, the island to be a Spanish nest until 1898. Plantation agriculture was established, and also slaves listed the labor. History indicates that more than eight hundred thousand African servants were brought to Cuba between 1800 and also 1870. Slave labor remained in high need on the extensive sugar plantations that overcame the island’s economy. The african influence deserve to still be witnessed now in the main religion of the island, Santeria, which is one overlay the African-based spirits on peak of Catholic saints. In ~ the present time, an estimated 70 percent that Cubans exercise some facet of Santeria.


Figure 5.27 us “Colonial” affect in Cuba. The old capitol structure in Havana, a replica that the us Capitol, was constructed by the united States throughout their manage of Cuba. The building is a traveler area and no longer used because that the government. The old united state cars in the photograph were made prior to the Cuban change (1958) but are quiet used and make up about fifty percent the motor vehicles in Havana. Photo by R. Berglee – CC BY-NC-SA.


With the defeat of Spain in the Spanish-American War, the joined States obtained possession the the Spanish possessions the Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, and various various other islands and thus ended up being a colonial power. Cuba technically came to be independent in 1902 however remained under US influence for decades. Sugar plantations and also the sugar industry happened owned and operated by united state interests, and wealthy americans bought up large haciendas (large estates), farmland, and family estates, and industrial and also business operations. Arranged crime syndicates operated countless of the nightclubs and casinos in Havana. As long as federal government leaders sustained US interests, points went well with business as usual. 


The Cuban Revolution

In January of 1934, through the encourage of the us government, Fulgencio Batista led a coup that took control of the Cuban government. Fidel Castro, when a sinner under Batista and also having fled come Mexico in exile for a number of years, went back to Cuba to start a revolution. Authorized him were his brothers Raúl Castro and also revolutionaries such as Che Guevara, an Argentinean medical professional turned comrade-in-arms. Starting in the remote and also rugged Sierra Maestras in the east, Castro rallied the support of the Cuban people. By the finish of 1958, the Cuban change brought under the US-backed Batista government. Castro acquired power and had the support of most of the Cuban population.


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Figure 5.28 Fidel Castro (left); Billboard in Havana fostering the Virtues the Revolutionaries Antonio Maceo and also Che Guevara (right). Wikimedia Commons – CC by 3.0; R. Berglee – CC BY-NC-SA.


Castro worked to recover Cuba because that Cubans. The government cleared rampant gambling indigenous the island, forcing organized crime operations to shut under or move back to the joined States. Castro nationalized all foreign landholdings and the street plantations, and also all the utilities, port facilities, and also other industries. Foreign ownership that land and businesses in Cuba was forbidden. Huge estates, when owned through rich united state families, were taken over and also recovered for Cuban purposes.


The united state Embargo Era

Castro’s plan of seizing (nationalizing) businesses and property raised involves in the united States. As a result, us president Dwight D. Eisenhower severed diplomatic connections with Cuba in 1960 and also issued an executive, management order implementing a partial profession embargo to prohibit the income of Cuban goods. Later presidents applied a full-scale embargo, restricting travel and also trade with Cuba. In march 1960, the central Intelligence agency trained Cuban exiles for an invasion of Cuba at the bay of Pigs, on the southern side the the island. This failed invasion attempt only brought about consolidating the Cuban people’s support for Castro and also his socialist government.

To deter any kind of further united state plans of invading or destabilizing Cuba, Castro sought economic and military help from the Soviet Union. Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev agreed to covertly send missiles equipped with atom weapons capable of hitting targets within the united States. In September 1962, united state spy planes determined the missile sites. On October 22, 1962, President man F. Kennedy announced a marine blockade that the island and also informed Khrushchev that any kind of Soviet delivery crossing the blockade would certainly be sunk. In ~ the critical second, the two leaders fixed this problem (called the Cuban Missile Crisis) before it erupted right into a potential nuclear war. Khrushchev recalled the ships and also agreed come dismantle the Cuban missile sites. In return, the United states agreed not to invade Cuba and also to remove US missiles native sites in Turkey the were aimed at the Soviet Union.

The please of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a downturn in Cuba’s economy. Through the loss of Soviet aid, the 1990s to be a harsh time because that Cubans, a duration of transition. Castro turned to tourism and foreign invest to shore up his failing economy. Tensions between the joined States and also Cuba did not improve. In 1996, the United claims strengthened the profession embargo v the Helms-Burton Act. At the revolve of the twenty-first century, Cuba arised as the lone Communist state in the Americas. Castro was the longest-governing leader of any type of country in the world. He never ever kept his promises of holding totally free elections; instead, he cracked under on dissent and suppressed free speech. That turned over strength to his brothers Raúl in 2006.


A Post-Castro Cuba

With Fidel Castro no longer in power, Cuba’s future looks more positive yet difficult. The island has actually natural resources, a great climate, and terrific location yet is likewise struggling economically. Cuba has a high literacy rate and also has standardized health care, though medical supplies are often in short supply. The Cubans that live in dire poor look come the future for relief. An individual freedoms have actually been marginal, and also reforms room slowly following in the post-Fidel era. Together the largest island in the Caribbean, Cuba has actually the potential to come to be an economic power because that the region. There is substantial US attention in regaining US supremacy of the Cuban economy, and corporate colonialists would choose to manipulate Cuba’s economic potential. Keeping corporate manifest destiny out is what Fidel’s socialist experiment operated so difficult to achieve, even at the expense of depriving the Cuban civilization of polite rights and economic reforms.


Figure 5.29 Dump van Taxi. Cubans use all available resources and also opportunities to gain by. These human being are catching a journey on a dump van to gain where they desire to go. Picture by R. Berglee – CC BY-NC-SA.


Cuba this day is in transition from a socialist to a more capitalist economy and relies on outside sources because that energy and also food. In 2008, the median wage in Cuba was around twenty dollars per month. There was almost total employment, and everyone to be on an equal footing in regard to free health care, education, and also housing. In ~ the exact same time, the underground informal economy was thriving and was pushing the formal economic climate to make changes. That very same year, Raúl Castro claimed that workers v different skills and occupations might earn earnings at differing levels. Cubans space now enabled to have cell phones and also computers, despite Internet access has been limited by the Cuban government. An ext goods and money are being carried in from Cuban household members who live in the joined States. The US government grants basic licenses to allow a number of categories of people to travel to Cuba. The is just a matter of time before full travel restrictions are lifted.

Cuba is counting on tourism for an added economic boost. With few of the best beaches and the clearest waters in the Caribbean, Cuba is a magnet because that tourists and also water sporting activities enthusiasts. Its landscape is complete of wonders and scenic areas. The beautiful Viñales Valley in west Cuba has been provided as a UNESCO world Heritage website for its outstanding karst landscape and also traditional farming as well together for that architecture, crafts, and also music. Karst topography is comprised of dissolve rock, such together limestone, which in the Viñales Valley outcomes in unexplained bread loaf–shaped hills that produce a scenic see attractive because that tourism. This region is additionally one that Cuba’s best tobacco-growing areas and has great potential for economic development. Cuba is gearing increase for rise in tourism when travel limitations are lifted by the unified States. Over there is currently a emphasis on improving tourism services to human being traveling there from China, Australia, Japan, and also other countries. Millions more from the United says are meant to travel to Cuba once the travel constraints are lifted. The Cuban economic climate is banking on tourism to build a course to a much more prosperous future.


Figure 5.30 Viñales valley in west Cuba. In 2008, Hurricanes Gustav and also Ike ravaged the tobacco crops, yet the region is recovering and is a significant tourist area. Picture by R. Berglee – CC BY-NC-SA. 


The commonwealth of Puerto Rico

Populated because that centuries through Amerindian peoples, the island the Puerto Rico was claimed by the Spanish Crown in 1493, following Columbus’s second voyage to the Americas. In 1898, after 4 hundred years of colonial rule, during which the indigenous population was nearly exterminated and African servant labor was introduced, Puerto Rico was yielded to the United says as a an outcome of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans to be granted united state citizenship in 1917. Popularly chosen governors have served since 1948. In 1952, a constitution was enacted offering for inner self-government. In elections hosted in 1967, 1993, and 1998, Puerto Rican voters chose to maintain the commonwealth status, although lock were nearly evenly split between total independence and becoming a united state state.

Puerto Rico is the the smallest of the 4 islands of the better Antilles and also is only slightly larger than the us state of Delaware. Puerto Rico’s population is around four million, comparable to the populace of Kentucky or Oregon. As us citizens, Puerto Ricans have actually no take trip or employed staff restrictions everywhere in the unified States, and around one million Puerto Ricans live in brand-new York City alone. The republic arrangement permits Puerto Ricans to be united state citizens without payment federal revenue taxes, however they cannot poll in united state presidential elections. The Puerto Rican Federal relations Act governs the island and also awards it considerable autonomy.


Figure 5.31 united state Government structure in san Juan, Puerto Rico, with Both US and Puerto Rican Flags. Rafael Torres – Puerto Rico Capitol building – CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.


Puerto Rico has actually one of the many dynamic economic climates in the Caribbean Basin; still, around 60 percent that its populace lives listed below the poor line. A diverse industrial ar has far surpassed farming as the main area of financial activity. Urged by duty-free access to the joined States and by taxes incentives, united state firms have actually invested heavily in Puerto Rico due to the fact that the 1950s, even though us minimum wage regulations apply. Sugar production has actually lost out to dairy production and also other livestock commodities as the main resource of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income, with approximated arrivals of much more than 5 million tourists a year. San Juan is the number one harbor for cruise pearls in the Caribbean external Miami. The us government additionally subsidizes Puerto Rico’s economic situation with gaue won aid.

The future that Puerto Rico together a political unit continues to be unclear. Some in Puerto Rico want total independence, and others would favor to come to be the fifty-first us state; the commonwealth status is a compromise. Puerto Rico is no an independent nation as a result of colonialism. Many of the islands and colonies in the Caribbean basin have skilled dynamics comparable to Puerto Rico in that they room still under the political jurisdiction that a nation that conquered it.


Hispaniola: The Dominican Republic and Haiti

Sharing the island the Hispaniola room the two nations of Haiti and also the Dominican Republic. The island became a possession of Spain under European manifest destiny after the was visited by Columbus in 1492 and 1493. The Tiano-Arawak human being were nonviolent and welcomed the Europeans, who consequently pressed them right into servitude and slavery. French buccaneers resolved on the western section of Hispaniola and also started cultivation tobacco and farming crops. France and also Spain ultimately agreed to divide the island into two colonies: the west side would certainly be French, and also the eastern side would be Spanish.

The Dominican Republic hold the largest share that Hispaniola. A former Spanish colony, the Dominican Republic has actually weathered the storms of history to come to be a fairly stable autonomous country. That is not, of course, without its problems. The Dominican Republic has long to be viewed primarily as an exporter the sugar, coffee, and also tobacco, however in recent years the business sector has actually overtaken farming as the economy’s biggest employer. The such as mountain interior and also the seaside beaches space attractive come the tourism market, and tourism stays the main source of financial income. The economic climate is highly dependent top top the joined States, which is the location for practically 60 percent that its exports. Remittances from employees in the United says sent ago to their households on the island contribute much to the economy. The country suffers from significant income inequality; the poorest fifty percent of the populace receives much less than one-fifth that the gross domestic product (GDP), while the wealthiest 10 percent enjoys practically 40 percent the GDP. High unemployment and also underemployment remains vital long-term challenge. The central American-Dominican Republic complimentary Trade commitment (CAFTA-DR) came into play in march 2007, an increasing investment and exports and reducing losses to the oriental garment industry. In addition, the an international economic downturn has not aided the Dominican Republic.

Plantation agriculture thrived in Haiti throughout the early american era, developing sugar, coffee, and also other cash crops. The neighborhood labor swimming pool was inadequate to expand plantation operations, therefore French colonists brought in countless African slaves to job-related the plantations, and also people of afri descent quickly outnumbered Europeans. Haiti came to be one that the most financially rewarding French colonies in the human being with some of the highest possible sugar manufacturing of the time. A slave revolt that started in 1792 finally beat the French forces, and also Haiti ended up being an independent country in 1804. It to be the first country ever to be rule by former slaves. However, the shift to a fully functional free state to be difficult. Racked through corruption and political conflicts, few presidents in the first hundred years ever before served a full term in office.

The joined States occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934 in an attempt to instill a us presence and bring some sense of stability. Indigenous 1957 come 1986, Dr. François “Papa Doc” Duvalier and then his child Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier controlled the government. They developed a personal army and also terrorist fatality squads recognized as Tonton Macoutes. Many Haitians fled come the United states or Canada, particularly to French-speaking Quebec. ~ the Duvalier era, a Catholic monk by the name of Jean-Bertrand Aristide won the presidency through autonomous elections just to it is in deposed of by a armed forces coup a couple of years later. Haiti has had actually a challenging time detect political and also economic stability.

Haiti is the poorest nation in the west Hemisphere, and also many Haitians live in dire poor with few employment opportunities. An upstream upper-class decimal controls the mass of the country wealth. Many people in Haiti have actually sought lull in Voodou (Vodoo), a religious practice steeped in African beliefs brought over with the slave trade. Regularly misunderstood by outsiders, Vodou’s its key objective is to bring great health and well-being.

Haiti’s January 12, 2010, earthquake to be a significant setback for such a negative country that was currently in require of help and support. The 7.0 size earthquake, with many aftershocks, struck Haiti about fifteen mile from Port-Au-Prince, resulting in as many as two hundred thousands deaths. An ext than two million were automatically homeless, and about a million an ext were in need of aid. The absence of structure standards in Haiti contributed to the fallen of structures and also the devastation. Food and other assist were brought in by numerous international agencies and also other countries to resolve the situation. Efforts continue to resolve the requirements of the Haitian civilization to stabilize the case and administer support and future opportunities.


Figure 5.32. UN peacekeeping troops patrol the highways of port au Prince after ~ Haiti’s 2010 earthquake. Wikimedia Commons – CC by 2.5.


The tropic island the Jamaica is physically smaller sized than the united state state the Connecticut. In 2010, it had a populace of around 2.8 million. Jamaica was resolved by the Spanish beforehand in the 16 century. The Taino Indians, who had actually inhabited Jamaica because that centuries, were gradually eradicated and also replaced by african slaves. Once England seized the island native Spain in 1655, it developed a plantation economy based on sugar, cocoa, and also coffee. Two century later (1834), the abolition of slavery freed a 4 minutes 1 million slaves, many of whom became small farmers. Jamaica gradually obtained independence indigenous Britain, with full independence completed in 1962. Sugar, cocoa, and coffee production continue on the island, that which more than half is mountainous. The Blue Mountains of east Jamaica are known for their Blue mountain coffee production.

Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s resulted in recurrent violence as rival gangs affiliated through the major political parties progressed into powerful organized crime networks associated in international drug smuggling and money laundering. Violent crime, drug trafficking, and also poverty pose far-reaching challenges to the country. Nonetheless, numerous rural and also resort compounds remain reasonably safe and also contribute substantially to the tourism sector. The beautiful beaches and also lush inner make because that an attractive destination for cruise ships and other tourists.


Tourism and Economic activity in the Rimland

The physical location of the Caribbean region makes the a prime location for tourism. That is beautiful seaside waters and also warm tropic climate attract in tourists from almost everywhere North America and the world. Tourism is the number one method of economic income for numerous places in the Caribbean Basin, and the traveler industry has actually experienced substantial growth in the last few decades. Travel is a major component of initiatives by leaders of the islands of the Lesser Antilles to accomplish economic advance for your people. In the last decade, there has actually been solid growth in the number of cruise ships operating in the Caribbean. Cruise ships indigenous the southern shores of the United claims ply your trade roughly the islands and coastal regions. San Juan obtain the largest variety of cruise delivery travelers, however other areas well well-known to tourists encompass the Bahamas, St. Martin, and also the Virgin Islands. Even the poorest nation in the Caribbean, Haiti, has tried to attract cruise ships come its ports. The western Caribbean itinerary consists of the Cayman Islands, Jamaica, and also Mexico or main American ports. The key restriction ~ above cruise ship travel is the hurricane season, indigenous June come November.


Figure 5.33 Carnival win Cruise ship in san Juan Harbor. Large cruise pearl in the Caribbean deserve to hold up to four thousand passengers and crew members. The significant cruise lines perform not operate in the Caribbean throughout hurricane season. Picture by R. Berglee – CC BY-NC-SA.


One could reasonably think that the economic benefits that tourism would certainly be entirely positive. However, this is no necessarily the case. Also though travel has come to be a vital economic ingredient of the Caribbean Basin, in the lengthy term, travel creates numerous problems. Large cruise ships and also pleasure crafts deserve to overtax the environment; there have actually been occasions whereby there were actually more tourists 보다 citizens on an island. Rise in tourist activity brings with it boost in ecological pollution.

Most human being in the Caribbean basin live listed below the poor line, and the investment in travel infrastructure, such together exclusive hotels and five-star resorts, takes away sources that might be allocated to schools, roads, medical clinics, and also housing. However, there is no the revenue from tourism, there would certainly be no money for infrastructure. Travel attracts human being who deserve to afford to travel. Many of the jobs in the hotels, ports, and also restaurants where wealthy tourists visit employ people from poorer communities at low wages. The disparity between the rich tourist and also the poor worker creates solid centrifugal social dynamics. The gap between the level that affluence and also the level of poverty is vast in the Caribbean. In the version of how countries gain wealth, tourism is a mixed-profit situation. Local businesses in the Caribbean do acquire income from tourist who spend their money there; however, the big money is in the cruise delivery lines and the will hotels, which are largely owned by international corporations or the regional wealthy elite.

There is small activity in the Caribbean container in the manufacturing sector. Although us firms have actually invested in Puerto Rico and also the Dominican Republic has actually experienced expansion in light industries and also information technologies, the continuing to be islands have actually had small industrial growth. Unless an island state has actually natural resources such as oil or minerals, as is the situation with Trinidad and also Tobago, there are few opportunities other than tourism to bolster the economy.

Agricultural commodities have been traditionally a huge part that the economic task of the islands of the Lesser Antilles. Grenada, because that example, is known for that nutmeg and also other spices. Bananas, sugar, and other fruit and also food plants have additionally been fiddle products. The difficulty has been that the profit margins ~ above the products are low and prices space subject to worldwide markets, which fluctuate widely. Through an increasing populace and couple of opportunities or advantages, nations such as Haiti experience from poverty and also unemployment. Being an island, there are few methods of expanding the economy. Human being often shot to migrate to one more county searching for employment and also a more hopeful future.


Offshore Banking

Other methods of getting wealth in the Caribbean encompass offshore banking and financial services. Various islands have established themselves together banking centers whereby one can set up financial accounts the are exterior the jurisdiction of various other countries. These offshore accounts carry out tax havens for individuals or corporations the wish come evade counting in their residence countries. Numerous of these island banking centers carry out not re-publishing account details with taxation agencies or federal government offices of various other countries. Areas such together the Cayman Islands have actually a global reputation for expert financial solutions for offshore banking. Together a result, the people of the Cayman Islands have actually a high standard of living with much national wealth. The Bahamas and also the Turks and Caicos have likewise established offshore financial centers, and also other Caribbean Islands are working to increase their visibility with comparable services. All space hoping to gain income indigenous this low-impact and also high-income enterprise. The unified States and other nations have made attempts to pressure these islands to share the jae won account details of human being evading taxes. If successful, there may be less of an inspiration for individuals and also businesses to use offshore accounts to shelter revenue from taxes or because that those connected in illegal money-laundering schemes to hide money in the Caribbean.

The large level of diversity in the Caribbean has actually not made it simple for outside entities to administer support and also assistance for common economic goals. The Caribbean neighborhood (CARICOM) is an organization with fifteen Caribbean members developed to promote economic integration and also cooperation in the region. It really hopes to coordinate international policy because that the region and ensure the the services of integration room equitably shared. CARICOM is an attempt to contend with various other trade establishments such together the phibìc American free Trade agreement (NAFTA) and also CAFTA-DR.


Caribbean Music

The Caribbean culture includes many varieties the music the have developed on number of islands. The region is a reproduction ground for innovative music and rhythms that emulate the social traditions and also attitudes of the people. Every island has its own classic festivals that encompass parades, music, and also dance. The music step reveals the uniqueness of the Caribbean. Listening come the myriad the sounds created from the different islands opens up a home window to the assortment of cultural backgrounds discovered in the Caribbean.

The Caribbean is complete of neighborhood musical variations, and many species of music are found only top top a single island or two. Because that example, the Dominican Republic has actually meringue music, Dominica has bouyon, and also Haiti has its festive rara music.

The Cuban affect on music is vividly noticeable in the spicy salsa tunes that have emanated indigenous the Caribbean over the years. African and also Spanish cultural influences have helped shape the salsa music the has advanced from Cuba and neighboring islands of Puerto Rico and the better Antilles. V a solid percussion component, snappy brass additions, and rhythmic guitar sections, salsa has become popular throughout many parts of Latin America. Other genres the music coming out of Cuba encompass rumba, habanera, son, and also timba, to surname a few.

Calypso music comes from a mix the African impacts on the island that Trinidad. Calypso started taking form at the start of the twenty century and also gained popularity with Carnival and other Caribbean festivals. It has advanced to combine the stole pan and other music instruments. A commercial variation of calypso ended up being popular v Harry Belafonte’s version of the Jamaican folk tune the “Day-O,” well-known as the “Banana watercraft Song”; however, Belafonte’s 1956 album Calypso had an ext of a Jamaican mento music style and he was not from Trinidad. Mento is a much more folksy rural style of acoustical music that affected other forms of music such together reggae in Jamaica.

The pan (steel pan) is the national instrument the Trinidad and Tobago, wherein it was created. The pan was initially made native fifty-five-gallon oil drums. The bottom is reduced off at miscellaneous levels to carry out different sounds. The height is then shaped into a chromatically pitched percussion instrument. The is struck v a pair of straight sticks. Whole family the pans has actually been developed and also can it is in assembled right into a stole pan orchestra. The instrument has end up being popular exterior the Caribbean as well.


Figure 5.34 stole Pans from Trinidad. Shane K – Trinidad (68) – CC BY-SA 2.0.


Reggae music began coming out of Jamaica in the 1960s through the music of such artists together Bob Marley and also the Wailers, i beg your pardon featured Peter Tosh and also Bunny Wailer. The rhythmic format with offbeat accents developed from previously genres to come to be a standard of Jamaican music. Musician from the Beatles come Eric Clapton have used reggae rhythms. Exterior Jamaica, reggae has hit the charts many thanks to groups such as UB40. Reggae music has often been connected with the Rastafarian movement or Rasta, which is based on a spiritual ideology consisting of the beliefs that former Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie was God incarnate and also the biblical Zion was in Africa.

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Key Takeaways

Colonialism created a high level of ethnic, linguistic, and also economic diversity in the Caribbean. The main shifts were the demise of native groups and the development of african slaves. The afri influence deserve to be saw in the faiths of Santeria in Cuba, Vodoo (Voodou) in Haiti, and Rasta in Jamaica.The Caribbean basin faces plenty of challenges, consisting of natural elements such together hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanic activity. Economic problems are regularly hampered by ecological degradation, corruption, organized crime, or the absence of employed staff opportunities.The Cuban revolution led through Fidel Castro produced a socialist state the nationalized foreign-owned assets and also brought about a trade embargo by the unified States. Cuba lost its help from the Soviet Union ~ the USSR’s please in 1991 and has been raising its focus on tourism and capitalistic reforms.Tourism can bring added economic earnings for an island country, but it also shifts come the service sector resources that are essential for infrastructure and also services. A high portion of tourism revenue goes to outside corporations.The diversity that the Caribbean is obvious in the wide variety of musical types generated indigenous the islands. Individual archipelago are recognized for certain varieties of music; salsa, reggae, and also calypso space examples.

Discussion and Study Questions

Which islands consist of the higher Antilles? Where are the Lesser Antilles?Which European countries were the main colonizers that the Caribbean?How is Cuba a great example of a rimland country?Why does the United states still have an financial embargo against Cuba?How is the political system in Cuba different from that of the joined States?Why is Puerto Rico a commonwealth of the joined States?How is Haiti various from the neighbor, the Dominican Republic?What space the hopeful and negative perspectives ~ above the Caribbean travel industry?Besides tourism, what other techniques do people in the Caribbean islands usage to generate wealth?How do differences in musical formats tell a story that Caribbean culture?

Geography Exercise

Identify the following key places on a map:

The BahamasBlue MountainsGreater AntillesLesser AntillesSierra MaestraViñales Valley