Understand the various alternatives for entering an international market.Be may be to carry out an instance of a firm using each option.

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When the executives in charge of a firm decide to get in a new country, they need to decide how finest to execute it. There are five simple options available: (1) exporting, (2) developing a wholly owned subsidiary, (3) franchising, (4) licensing, and (5) developing a joint undertaking or strategic alliance (Figure 7.25 “Market entry options”). These choices vary in terms of exactly how much regulate a firm has actually over the operation, initial expense of entry, just how much hazard is involved, and what re-publishing of the operation’s profits the firm gets to keep.

Figure 7.25: industry entry alternatives Exporting

Exporting involves producing goods in ~ a firm’s residence country and also then shipping castle to an additional country. Once the goods reach foreign shores, the exporter’s function is over. A regional firm then sells the products to neighborhood customers. Numerous firms that broaden overseas begin out together exporters since exporting offers a low-cost method to uncover out whether a firm’s assets are appeal to client in various other lands. Some oriental automakers, because that example, very first entered the U.S. Market through exporting. Small firms may rely top top exporting due to the fact that it is a low-cost option.

Figure 7.26: Exporting regularly relies on substantial cargo ships, such together this one.

Once a firm’s products are found to it is in viable in a particular country, exporting regularly becomes undesirable. A firm the exports its goods loses manage of them as soon as they room turned end to a local firm because that sale locally. This neighborhood distributor may treat customers poorly and also thereby damage the this firm brand. Also, one exporter just makes money as soon as it selling its items to a local firm, not when finish users buy the goods. Executives might want their firm quite than a neighborhood distributor to reap the profits that room made when assets are marketed to individual customers.


While franchising is an alternative within business industries, licensing is most typically used in manufacturing industries. Licensing entails granting a foreign company the right to produce a that company product in ~ a foreign country in exchange for a fee. This relationships often centre ~ above patented technology. A firm the grants a patent avoids soaking up a most startup costs, but typically loses some regulate over exactly how its modern technology is used, including quality control. Earnings are restricted to the fees the it collection from the neighborhood firm and also firms must be mindful of the level of risk to pundit property loss.

A historical example involving license illustrates exactly how rapidly events can readjust within the global arena. By the time Japan surrendered to the joined States and its Allies in 1945, world War II had crippled the country’s commercial infrastructure. In response to this problem, Japanese that company imported a great deal of technology, specifically from American firms. As soon as the korean War broke out in the early 1950s, the American military relied top top Jeeps make in Japan using licensed technology. In just a few years, a mortal opponent had come to be a an useful ally.

Figure 7.27: Franchising: A Leading American export

Franchising has been used by many firms that complete in service industries to construct a worldwide presence (Figure 7.27 “Franchising: A leading American Export”). Subway, the UPS Store, and also Hilton hotels are just a couple of of the that company that have done so. Franchising requires an company (called a franchisor) granting the right to use its brand name, products, and processes come other organizations (known as franchisees) in exchange because that an upfront payment (a franchise fee) and also a percent of franchisees’ earnings (a nobility fee).

Franchising is an attractive way to enter foreign markets due to the fact that it requires little financial invest by the franchisor. Indeed, regional franchisees need to pay the vast majority of the expenses linked with acquiring their enterprise up and running. On the downside, the decision to franchise way that a certain will get to enjoy only a small part of the profits made under the brand name. Also, neighborhood franchisees may behave in means that the franchisor does not approve. For example, KFC was angered by few of its franchisees in Asia when they started marketing fish dishes there is no KFC’s approval. It is often complicated to resolve such problems due to the fact that laws in plenty of countries favor neighborhood businesses. Together well, franchises are only successful if franchisees are listed with a simple and effective business model. Executives hence need come avoid expanding internationally v franchising until their formula has actually been perfected.

However, no franchise is a foolproof money maker. Tim Hortons, Canada’s biggest fast-food restaurant, began a partnership with the American dairy chain Cold stone Creamery in 2009, yet ended the affiliation in 2014. Tim Hortons has around 3,600 shop in Canada, almost 900 in unified States and around 40 in the Persian Gulf. Initially, the U.S. Stores were the an outcome of natural expansion in Canadian border areas. However, in 2010, Tim Hortons announced it was closing 36 shop in the northeastern unified States due to high competition in the New England area. Those stores, now closed, made less than fifty percent the average company per save sales. In the announcement, the company stated that it would certainly concentrate its efforts on its core markets such as Western Canada. To the end, in 2014, the for sure announced the planned opening of an additional 500 stores in Canada, and a go back to the unified States with 300 brand-new stores opening there too (Shaw, 2014).

Strategy in ~ the Movies

Gung Ho

Can American workers survive under Japanese management? although this sounds prefer the premise because that a poor reality TV show, the concern was a legitimate factor to consider for general Motors (GM) and also Toyota in the at an early stage 1980s. GM to be struggling at the time to compete with the inexpensive, reliable, and fuel-efficient cars produced by Japanese firms. Meanwhile, Toyota was worried the the U.S. Government would border the number of foreign cars that might be imported. To attend to these issues, these companies worked together come reopen a defunct GM plant in Fremont, California, in 1984 that would certainly manufacture both companies’ automobiles in one facility. The plant had been the worst show in the GM system; however, under Toyota’s management, the brand-new United motor Manufacturing included (NUMMI) plant came to be the best factory linked with GM—using the very same workers together before! in spite of NUMMI’s eventual success, the joint manufacturing plant experienced far-reaching growing pains stemming native the social differences between Japanese managers and American workers.

The NUMMI story motivated the 1986 movie Gung Ho in i beg your pardon a closed car manufacturing tree in Hadleyville, Pennsylvania, was reopened by Japanese car agency Assan Motors. If Assan Motors and also the workers of Hadleyville to be both excited around the venture, no was all set for the differences between the 2 cultures. Because that example, Japanese employees feel personally ashamed as soon as they make a mistake. As soon as manager Oishi Kazihiro fail to accomplish production targets, he to be punished v “ribbons the shame” and forced come apologize to his employees because that letting them down. In contrast, American workers were presented in the film as likely to refuse management authority, prone to fighting in ~ work, and also not opposed to taking shortcuts.

When Assan Motors’ executives check to academy morning calisthenics and insisted the employees job-related late without overtime pay, the American workers tested these policies and also eventually walked turn off the manufacturing line. Assan Motors’ near failure was the an outcome of distinctions in cultural norms and also values. Gung Ho illustrates the worth of understanding and bridging social differences come facilitate effective cross-cultural collaboration, value that to be realized in genuine life by NUMMI.

Figure 7.28: Ford Mustang Assembly LineJoint Ventures and Strategic Alliances

Within each market entry option, a firm have to choose between maintaining strong control of operations (wholly owned subsidiary) or turning most manage over to a regional firm (exporting, franchising, and licensing). In some cases, however, executives find it advantageous to work carefully with one or much more local partners in a joint endeavor or a strategy alliance. In a joint venture, 2 or an ext organizations each contribute to the development of a brand-new entity. In a strategic alliance, firms work-related together cooperatively, but no brand-new organization is formed. In both cases, the firm and also its neighborhood partner or partner share decision-making authority, manage of the operation, and also any earnings that the connection creates.

Joint ventures and also strategic alliances are especially attractive when a for sure believes that working very closely with locals will administer it with vital knowledge around local conditions and facilitate accept of your involvement by government officials and also consumers. In the so late 1980s, China to be a complicated market because that North American businesses come enter. Executives in ~ KFC saw China as an attractive country because chicken is a key element that Chinese diets. After considering the various options for beginning China through its first restaurant, KFC decided to produce a joint endeavor with three neighborhood organizations. KFC owned 51 percent the the venture; having more than fifty percent of the operation was advantageous in case arguments arose. A Chinese financial institution owned 25 percent, the neighborhood tourist bureau owned 14 percent, and the final 10 percent was owned by a regional chicken producer that would supply the restaurant v its signature food item.

Having this three regional partners aided KFC navigate the cumbersome regulatory process that was in place and enabled the American certain to withstand the scrutiny of wary Chinese officials. In spite of these advantages, it still took more than a year for the save to it is in built and also approved. Once open in 1987, however, KFC was an immediate success in China. Together China’s economy gradually became more and an ext open, KFC was a significant beneficiary. By the finish of 1997, KFC activate 191 restaurants in 50 Chinese cities. By the begin of 2011, there were around 3,200 KFCs spread across 850 Chinese cites. About 90 percent of these restaurants are wholly own subsidiaries that KFC—a stark indication of exactly how much doing business in China has adjusted over the previous twenty-five years.

Figure 7.29: as of early 2011, KFC was opened a new store in China every eighteen hrs on average.Creating a Wholly own Subsidiary

A wholly own subsidiary is a organization operation in a foreign nation that a firm fully owns. A for sure can build a wholly own subsidiary through a greenfield venture, meaning the the firm create the whole operation itself. Another possibility is purchase an existing operation from a local agency or another foreign operator.

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Regardless of even if it is a firm build a wholly own subsidiary “from scratch” or purchases an present operation, having a wholly own subsidiary deserve to be attractive due to the fact that the for sure maintains finish control end the operation and gets to keep all of the profits (or losses) that the procedure makes. A wholly own subsidiary deserve to be fairly risky, however, because the firm must pay every one of the prices required to set it up and also operate it. Kia, for example, spent $1 billion to construct its U.S. Factory. Many firms space reluctant to invest such sums, particularly in more volatile countries, since they fear that they may never recoup your investments.