10 estimate a Variable and Fixed cost Equation and also Predict Future Costs

Sometimes, a business will have to use price estimation techniques, specifically in the instance of mixed costs, so the they have the right to separate the fixed and variable components, because only the variable components adjust in the brief run. Estimate is additionally useful because that using present data to predict the impacts of future alters in production on full costs. 3 estimation methods that can be used encompass the scatter graph, the high-low method, and also regression analysis. Here we will demonstrate the scatter graph and also the high-low approaches (you will discover the regression analysis method in progressed managerial accountancy courses.

You are watching: Given the following cost data, what type of cost is shown?

Functions of cost Equations

The cost equation is a straight equation that takes right into consideration total fixed costs, the solved component of combined costs, and variable price per unit. Cost equations have the right to use past data to recognize patterns that past expenses that have the right to then project future costs, or they deserve to use approximated or intended future data to calculation future costs. Remind the mixed cost equation:


When using this approach, Eagle electronics must be details that the is just predicting costs for its pertinent range. Because that example, if they have to hire a second supervisor in order to produce 12,000 units, they need to go ago and change the complete fixed prices used in the equation. Likewise, if variable prices per unit change, these must additionally be adjusted.

This same approach can be provided to predict costs for service and also merchandising firms, as presented by evaluating the prices incurred by J&L audit to prepare a corporate income tax return, displayed in (Figure).

Cost info for J&L AccountingCost IncurredFixed or VariableCost
Building rentFixed?1,000 per month
Direct labor (for CPAs)Variable?250 per taxes return
Secretarial staffFixed?2,000 every month
Accounting clerksVariable?100 per return

J&L wants to predict their complete costs if they finish 25 corporate taxes returns in the month the February.

Determine total fixed costs: ?1,000 + ?2,000 = ?3,000Determine variable prices per taxes return: ?250 + ?100 = ?350Complete the cost equation: Y = ?3,000 + ?350x

Using this equation, J&L deserve to now predict its full costs (Y) for the month of February once they anticipate prepare 25 corporate tax returns:

\(\beginarraycY=\text?3,000+\left(\text?350\phantom\rule0.2em0ex×\phantom\rule0.2em0ex25\right)\hfill \\ Y=\text?3,000+\text?8,750\hfill \\ Y=\text?11,750\hfill \endarray\)

J&L have the right to now usage this predicted total cost number of ?11,750 to do decisions concerning how lot to charge clients or exactly how much cash they need to cover expenses. Again, J&L must be cautious to try not come predict prices outside that the relevant selection without adjusting the corresponding total cost components.

J&L can make suspect for their costs due to the fact that they have the data lock need, but what happens once a organization wants come estimate full costs however has not built up data about per-unit costs? This is the instance for the managers at the beach Inn, a small hotel ~ above the coast of south Carolina. They understand what their expenses were because that June, yet now they want to suspect their prices for July. They have gathered the details in (Figure).


Demonstration that the Scatter Graph an approach to calculate Future expenses at Varying task Levels

One of the assumptions that managers must do in stimulate to use the expense equation is the the connection between task and expenses is linear. In various other words, costs rise in straight proportion come activity. A diagnostic device that is supplied to verify this assumption is a scatter graph.

A scatter graph mirrors plots of clues that represent actual expenses incurred for assorted levels of activity. As soon as the scatter graph is constructed, we attract a line (often referred to as a trend line) that shows up to ideal fit the sample of dots. Due to the fact that the trend line is somewhat subjective, the scatter graph is often used together a preliminary device to discover the opportunity that the relationship between cost and activity is typically a linear relationship. When interpreting a scatter graph, that is vital to remember the different world would most likely draw various lines, which would lead to various estimations that fixed and variable costs. Nobody person’s line and also cost approximates would necessarily be appropriate or wrong compared to another; castle would just be different. After utilizing a scatter graph to recognize whether cost and activity have a straight relationship, managers regularly move on to much more precise processes for cost estimation, such together the high-low method or least-squares regression analysis.

To show how a agency would usage a scatter graph, let’s rotate to the data for Regent Airlines, i m sorry operates a fleet of regional jets offer the northeast joined States. The commonwealth Aviation management establishes guidelines for routine aircraft maintenance based top top the variety of flight hours. As a result, Regent finds that its maintenance expenses vary native month come month with the variety of flight hours, as illustrated in (Figure).


In scatter graphs, price is taken into consideration the dependence variable due to the fact that cost depends ~ above the level that activity. The task is considered the live independence variable due to the fact that it is the reason of the variation in costs. Regent’s scatter graph shows a confident relationship between flight hours and maintenance expenses because, as trip hours increase, maintenance costs additionally increase. This is referred to as a positive linear relationship or a linear expense behavior.

Will all expense and activity relationships be linear? Only when there is a relationship between the activity and that particular cost. What if, instead, the cost of eye removal for the runways is plotted against flight hours? suppose the snow removal prices are as detailed in (Figure).

Snow removed CostsMonthActivity Level: trip HoursSnow removed Costs


where Y2 is the total cost at the highest level that activity; Y1 is the complete cost in ~ the shortest level that activity; X2 is the variety of units, job hours, etc., in ~ the highest possible level of activity; and X1 is the variety of units, labor hours, etc., at the shortest level the activity.

Using the maintenance expense data from Regent Airlines shown in (Figure), we will certainly examine exactly how this technique works in practice.

The first step in examining mixed expenses with the high-low technique is to determine the periods with the highest and also lowest levels of activity. In this case, it would certainly be February and May, as presented in (Figure). We always choose the highest and lowest task and the prices that correspond with those level of activity, also if they are not the highest and also lowest costs.

We are currently able to estimate the variable prices by dividing the difference in between the expenses of the high and the low periods by the readjust in activity using this formula:


Using the high-low method, to express the that company maintenance expenses as one equation where x to represent the gallons of repaint produced. Then calculation the fixed and variable costs.Predict the maintenance prices if 90,000 gallons of paint are produced.Predict the maintenance expenses if 81,000 gallons of paint are produced.Using Excel, develop a scatter graph that the price data and also explain the relationship in between gallons of repaint produced and also equipment maintenance expenses.

(Figure)This expense data from Hickory Furniture is because that the year 2017.


Using the high-low method, refer the company’s overtime wages as one equation wherein x represents variety of invoices processed. Assume BC has actually monthly fixed expenses of ?3,800.Predict the overtime earnings if 9,000 invoices are processed.Predict the overtime incomes if 6,500 invoices are processed.Using Excel, develop a scatter graph that the expense data and explain the relationship between the variety of invoices processed and also overtime wage expense.

(Figure)This expense data from Hickory Furniture is because that the year 2017.


Prepare a scatter graph that the shipping data. Plot expense on the upright axis and also yachts transport on the horizontal axis. Is the relationship between shipping costs and unit shipped approximately linear? attract a right line v the scatter graph.Using the high-low method, create the price formula for Carolina Yachts’ shipping costs.The least-squares regression technique was used and the analysis resulted in this cost equation: Y = 4,000 + 1,275x. Talk about the accuracy of her high-low technique estimation.What would you calculation shipping expenses to it is in if Carolina Yachts shipped 10 yachts in a single month? usage the expense formula you derived in component B. Talk about how correctly this is reflected by the scatter graph you constructed.What factors other than number of yachts shipped perform you think could influence Carolina Yachts’ shipping expense? Explain.

See more: What Happened To Justin Simle Ice Pilots Nwt, What Happened To Justin Simle Ice Pilots

(Figure)Gadell farms produces wild sausage that is distributed to grocery store stores transparent the Southeast. They have gathered this shipping expense data:


Prepare a scatter graph that the shipping data. Plot expense on the upright axis and tons developed on the horizontal axis. Is the relationship between packaging costs and tons produced roughly linear? attract a right line v the scatter graph.Using the high-low method, calculation the expense formula because that Gadell Farms’ packaging costs.The least-squares regression method was used and also the analysis resulted in this cost equation: Y = 1650 + 78.57x. Talk about the accuracy of her high-low technique estimation.What would you calculation packaging costs to be if Gadell farms shipped 10 tons in a solitary month? use the expense formula you acquired in component B. Comment on how that s right this is reflected by the scatter graph you constructed.What factors other than number of tons created do girlfriend think could impact Gadell Farm’s packaging expense? Explain.


high-low methodtechnique because that separating the fixed and also variable cost contents of blended costsscatter graphplot of pairs of number data that represents actual costs incurred for miscellaneous levels that activity, through one variable on each axis, supplied to identify whether over there is a relationship in between them