Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. That is really reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: amongst the elements, it has actually the greatest electron affinity and also the third-highest electronegativity, behind just oxygen and also fluorine.
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While perhaps finest known because that its role in offering clean drinking water, chlorine chemistry additionally helps provide energy-efficient structure materials, electronics, fiber optics, solar energy cells, 93 percent of life-saving pharmaceuticals, 86 percent of crop protection compounds, clinical plastics, and also much more.
Elemental chlorine is commercially created from brine by electrolysis, mostly in the chlor-alkali process.
Protons and also Neutrons in Chlorine
The full number of neutrons in the cell nucleus of one atom is dubbed the neutron number of the atom and is offered the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference in between the spirit number and the atom number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.
For stable elements, there is typically a selection of stable isotopes. Isotopes room nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element, yet differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of usual isotopes of Chlorine are 35; 37.
Main isotope of Chlorine
Chlorine has two stable isotopes, 35Cl and also 37Cl. These space its only two organic isotopes developing in quantity, v 35Cl consisting of 76% of herbal chlorine and also 37Cl making up the continuing to be 24%.The longest-lived radioactive isotope is 36Cl, which has a half-life that 301,000 years. All other isotopes have actually half-lives under 1 hour, plenty of less 보다 one second.
Chlorine-35 is created of 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and also 17 electrons.
Chlorine-37 is created of 17 protons, 20 neutrons, and 17 electrons.
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Chlorine-36 is composed of 17 protons, 19 neutrons, and also 17 electrons. Trace quantities of radioactive 36Cl exist in the environment, in a ratio of about 7×10−13 to 1 with secure isotopes. 36Cl is developed in the environment by spallation of 36Ar by interactions with cosmic ray protons.