For answer to numerous of the concerns please refer to the reading List for exam #3. Also try the Wayne"s Word index & economic Plant Families. Answers to numerous of the fruit form questions room in the Fruit identification Outline. The following clues & hyperlinks room designed to aid students price the questions about plant genetics.
Introduction To genetic Terms offered In this Questions:
Note: whereby I have actually used the ax "chromosome complement," ns am merely referring come the "complete" chromosome makeup of the nucleus of a cabinet in the flowering tree life cycle. The Merriam Webster Third new International thesaurus has plenty of definitions for complement, but the one ns am utilizing is "the amount or number required to to fill a thing or do it complete." top top the chromosome concerns I desire the "complete" chromosomes (represented by letters) for various cells and also nuclei in the tree life cycle. Because that example, if ABCD describes the chromosomes of an egg and abcd refers to the chromosomes of a sperm; climate AaBbCcDd refers to the finish chromosomes the a fertilized egg or zygote (ABCD + abcd = AaBbCcDd). In a number of questions I have referred to the chromosome match of a certain cell or nucleus, such as the zygote. In this instance the chromosome match of the zygote would certainly be AaBbCcDd. The chromosome match of the embryo would also be AaBbCcDd. Just think of the chromosome match as the complete chromosome assembly of a cabinet where large and tiny case letters stand for the yes, really chromosomes. If there is one of each letter, then the cell is haploid (e.g. ABCD or abcd). If there space two of every letter, then the cabinet is diploid (e.g. AaBbCcDd). If there are three of each letter, then the cabinet is triploid (e.g. AAaBBbCCcDDd). If there are four of every letter, then the cabinet is tetraploid (e.g. AAaaBBbbCCccDDdd).
In the following questions, the term haploid (1n) describes one set of chromosomes. This is frequently the number of chromosomes discovered in the solitary nuclei the sex cells (gametes). In the flowering plant life cycle, this is additionally the chromosome number of the three nuclei in ~ a germinated pollen grain (pollen tube) and also the eight nuclei within an embryo sac. In plants, the haploid part of the life cycle is called the gametophyte. The typical haploid number for a human egg or sperm is 23 chromosomes (n = 23). The term diploid refers to two set of chromosomes resulting from the union the the sperm and the egg. This is typically the number of chromosomes discovered in the nuclei of human body cells (somatic cells) of a plant or animal. In plants, the diploid component of the life bike is called the sporophyte. In a common human, the diploid number is 46 chromosomes (2n = 46). The following link to life bike patterns might be helpful in expertise the gametophyte and sporophyte parts of a life cycle. In the diagrams, everything over the red horizontal line is diploid (sporophyte) and also everything listed below the red heat is haploid (gametophyte). The terms sporophyte and gametophyte are supplied in the life cycles the plants, fungi and also algae, however not animals.Life cycle Patterns: Human, Moss, Fern & flower PlantThe somatic (sporophyte) cells of plants commonly have an ext than two sets that chromosomes and are termed polyploid. Lock are derived from an egg or sperm that contained more than one collection of chromosomes. For example, if a diploid egg cell (2n= 14) unites with a haploid sperm cell (n = 7), the resulting zygote will certainly be triploid (3n) v a complete of 21 chromosomes (3n = 21). Gametes that carry an ext than one collection of chromosomes are induced by treating flowers and buds v colchicine. This is specifically true of hybrid fruits and vegetables whereby polyploidy often results in the bigger size the vegetables, fruits and flowers. Polyploid plants may be triploid (three to adjust of chromosomes), tetraploid (four sets), pentaploid (five sets), hexaploid (six sets), and may go all the way to octoploid (eight sets). Normally odd polyploids, such as triploid plants, are sterile and cannot produce viable gametes. Gametes are created by a special type of cell division known together meiosis. Throughout prophase i of meiosis, the matching (homologous) maternal and paternal chromosomes of the seed and pollen parents must pair up through each various other in a procedure called synapsis. Triploid plants normally exhibit synaptic failure because there is a third set of chromosomes that has no homologous set to pair up with. Since triploid plants cannot develop viable gametes, castle are frequently seedless. The commercial advantages of seedless watermelons and also bananas are easily apparent. Even-numbered polyploids (such as tetraploid plants) are commonly fertile since all the maternal and paternal set of chromosomes have actually a homologous collection of chromosomes to pair up with. Therefore, tetraploid tree can produce seeds. For propagation purposes, productive tetraploid hybrids are economically desirable.See Plant the Produces ColchicineSometimes diploid (2n) hybrids are sterile and also seedless, also though they have two set of chromosomes. This is particularly true as soon as the seed and pollen parents are two different varieties (interspecific hybrids) or different genera (bigeneric hybrids). Again, the sterility trouble relates come synaptic failure throughout meiosis. The maternal and also paternal to adjust of chromosomes do not pair increase properly since they come indigenous different types and space not truly homologous. A an excellent example of this kind of sterility is the diploid (2n) rabbage result from a cross in between a radish (Raphanus sativus) and also a cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The tetraploid (4n) rabbage hybrid is fertile because the two sets of radish chromosomes have the right to pair up through each other, and the 2 sets that cabbage chromosomes deserve to pair up through each other.Keeping monitor of the chromosome numbers in plant hybridization can be a small confusing. For example, the diploid variety of the rye plant (sporophyte) is 14. We deserve to represent the two sets of rye chromosomes as DD, wherein D=7. The gametes of rye room haploid and carry just one set of chromosomes (D). Bread wheat is a hexaploid (6n) written of 6 set of chromosomes (AA, BB & CC), each collection with 7 chromosomes (A=7, B=7, C=7). Therefore, the variety of chromosomes in the wheat hexaploid sporophyte (AABBCC) is 42. The gametes the bread wheat carry three sets of chromosomes (ABC), a total of 21 chromosomes(3n = 21). Triticale (Triticosecale) is a bigeneric hybrid between bread wheat (Triticum aestivum n=21) and also rye (Secale cereale n=7). The result hybrid (ABCD) contains one collection of rye chromosomes (D) and 3 to adjust of wheat chromosomes (ABC), a total of 28 chromosomes (7 + 21). That is sterile since the rye (D) collection has no homologous collection to pair up with throughout synapsis. This sterile hybrid seedling is treated v colchicine to develop a plant v twice as many sets the chromosomes (i.e. 2A"s, 2B"s, 2C"s and also 2 D"s), a total of 56 chromosomes (8 x 7 = 56). The productive hybrid is one octoploid (8n) because it contains 8 sets of chromosomes (8n = 56).
More Information around Plant Genetics:Apples: Polyploid VarietiesBananas: Seedless TriploidsCereals: some Polyploid HybridsGrapes: some Seedless CultivarsSterile Hybrids (Including The Mule)Mustard family Vegetable HybridsTomatoes: gene EngineeredWatermelons: Seedless Melons
concerns 1-12: view bisexual flower chart in Flowering plant Article.Questions 13-26: several of the matching choices are vegetative tree parts typically described and illustrated in basic botany textbooks and dictionaries: Petiole (the stalk of a leaf); tongue (the expanded or flattened component of a leaf); stolon (a stem trailing above the ground and rooting whereby the leaves arise); rhizome (a scaly, underground stem that produces irpari stems above and roots below; tuber (an enlarged, subterranean stem that typically arises in ~ the reminder of a rhizome); bulb (an upright subterranean stem surrounded by overlapping, fleshy scales); corm (an underground stem there is no overlapping scales or with only a few scales); storage roots (enlarged root that frequently occur in clusters and without the "eyes" or buds of a tuber); thorn (a modified sharp-pointed stem); spine (a amendment sharp-pointed leaf); herbaceous (a plant that lacks woody tissue); perennial (a plant that blooms every year, the herbaceous stems regularly dying earlier to a woody rootstock after ~ flowering); annual (a herbaceous plant that stays for one year); biennial (a herbaceous plant that blooms throughout the second year and then dies). Click on the following attach for illustrations that vegetative terminology:Botany 115 Vegetative TerminologyFlowering tree Life Cycle:In the flowering plant life cycle, the haploid generation is decreased to a germinated pollen grain containing three nuclei and also a 7-celled embryo sac containing eight nuclei. Diploid microspore mother cells within the anther undergo meiosis (microsporogenesis) creating haploid microspores (each mom cell splitting into 4 microspores). The microspores build into binucleate pollen grains, each containing a tube nucleus and also a generative nucleus. When the pollen grain lands ~ above a receptive stigma it grows into an elongate pollen tube containing a pipe nucleus and also a generative nucleus, the last of i beg your pardon divides right into two sperm nuclei.
A binucleate angiosperm pollen grain containing a generative nucleus and also a pipe nucleus. ~ the pollen grain germinates right into a pollen tube, the generative cell core divides right into two sperm nuclei. Since the generative nucleus and also sperm nuclei save on computer cytoplasmic sheaths, they are often referred to together cells in some textbooks. The tube nucleus controls the development of the pollen tube as grows under the style and into the ovary of a flower. Ultimately it penetrates the micropyle of one ovule and also releases its 2 sperm into the 8-nucleate embryo sac. During double fertilization, one sperm fuses with the egg nucleus to kind a zygote. The various other sperm fuses through the two polar nuclei within the endosperm mom cell to kind the endosperm. In corn, this process must happen for every grain that forms. Even an ext astonishing is the expansion of different pollen tubes down each strand that silk (styles).A diploid megaspore mommy cell within each ovule also undergoes meiosis (megasporogenesis) and forms 4 haploid megaspores, three of which abort leave one functional megaspore. The sensible megaspore (inside each ovule) experience nuclear division into a 7-celled, 8-nucleate embryo sac. In ~ one end of the embryo sac room three antipodal cells. At the opposite finish is one egg cabinet flanked by two synergid cells. A large binucleate cell in the facility containing two polar nuclei is called the endosperm mommy cell. During pollination, pollen grains land ~ above the stigma where they type pollen tube that pass through the style and eventually the ovary that the flower. A different sperm-bearing pollen tube have to reach every ovule in order come fertilize the egg cell within the embryo sac. During twin fertilization two sperm room introduced right into the embryo sac indigenous the lengthy pollen tube. One sperm cell core fuses with the egg nucleus within the egg cell to form a diploid (2n) zygote which develops into the embryo of the seed. The other sperm cell core fuses through the two polar nuclei inside the endosperm mommy cell to type the tripolid (3n) endosperm that the seed.
Microscopic see of the embryo sac (megagametophyte) that a lily (Lilium). 3 haploid antipodal cell (1) happen at the upper finish of the emryo sac. A big endosperm mom cell containing two haploid polar nuclei (2) rectal the central portion that the embryo sac. At the lower end (nearest the micropyle and also funiculus) are two haploid synergid cells (3) and one haploid egg. The embryo sac contains a complete of 7 cells and eight nuclei. Together with the pollen grain + pollen tube, this is the whole gametophyte generation that a flowering tree life cycle. The sporophyte generation consists of the stems, leaves, roots, flowers, fruits and also seeds.After fertilization, the ovule enlarges and develops into a mature seed containing a diploid zygote and also triploid endosperm. The seed coat is chromosomally the same to the female parental (ovary tissue) due to the fact that it was acquired from two external layers of the ovule referred to as the integument (the integument of gymnosperm ovules is composed of a solitary layer). On a mature seed the opening or sharp in the seeds coat is where the pollen tube once gone into a space in the integument layers dubbed the micropyle. Together the ovules develop into seeds, the external ovary encasing the ovules enlarges and also ripens into a fruit. Fruits that build without dual fertilization and without seeds are termed parthenocarpic. Instances of parthenocarpic fruits are navel oranges, bananas, seedless watermelons, and details varieties that figs. No all seedless fruits are parthenocarpic. In Thompson seedless grapes, fertilization go occur, yet the ovules failure to develop within the fruit. Parthenocarpy have the right to be induced artificially through the application of dilute growth hormone sprays (such as auxins) to the flowers, together in seedless tomatoes. Seedless watermelons come native triploid (sterile) plants; however, to set fruit they need to be pollinated by a abundant diploid plant. Part embryos of seed can construct apomictically there is no fertilization. A variety of angiosperm family members contain apomictic species, consisting of figs, blackberries, hawthorns and also dandelions. The embryo may develop from a diploid nutritive cabinet (nucellus tissue) bordering the embryo sac or from the fusion of hapolid cell within the embryo sac. In basic there room two main species of apomixis:<1> Parthenogenesis (agamogenesis): A haploidor diploid egg within the embryo sac (or diploid cell from 2 fusedhaploid cells of embryo sac) establishes into an embryo. <2> Agamospermy: an embryo arises from tissue neighboring the embryo sac. If this entails cells the the nucellus or inner integument layer the is called a nucellar embryo. Nucellar embryos room chromosomally identical to the sporophyte parent. Lock are essentially clones that the female parent. In varieties of the edible fig (Ficus carica), apomictic seeds enable propagation of an option edible fig cultivars (female trees) without the transmission of viruses v cuttings. Apomixis also enables a pioneer seedling to colonize and also become nature in a brand-new habitat by reseeding chin without overcome pollination.Genetics that Triploid WatermelonSee Sex decision In FigsQuestions 27-34: If the diploid pollen parental is aabbcc, then the haploid sperm would certainly be . If the diploid seed parent is AABBCC, then the haploid egg would be . In dual fertilization, one sperm unites through one egg to kind a diploid zygote. Another haploid sperm unites through two haploid polar nuclei + to form a triploid endosperm within the seed. Since the seed coat originates native the outer wall of the ovule (called the integument), which was component of the initial maternal particle parent, it is chromosomally similar with the initial diploid seeds parent. The mature pollen grain includes a pipe nucleus and generative nucleus, the latter of i beg your pardon divides right into two sperm nuclei within the pollen tube. Every one of these pollen nuclei space chromosomally similar with every other and also with the sperm nuclei. The following diagram summarizes double fertilization in this question:
Sperm #1 (abc) fuses with a haploid egg (ABC) bring about a diploid zygote (AaBbCc) that grows right into a diploid embryo (AaBbCc) in ~ the seed. Sperm #2 (abc) fuses v the two haploid polar nuclei (ABC and ABC) in ~ the endosperm mommy cell causing a triploid endosperm cell (AAaBBbCCc) that creates into the nutritive endosperm tissue (AAaBBbCCc) surrounding the embryo. The adhering to remarkable Wayne"s Word photo shows a minute diploid coconut embryo embedded in the triploid, meaty endosperm in ~ the particle of a coconut palm.
Close-up view through the inside of a coconut seed mirroring a small, cylindrical embryo (A) installed in the fleshy meat or endosperm (B). The base of the embryo (pointing into the coconut) swells right into an soaking up organ (cotyledon) the fills the whole cavity the the seed together it digests the endosperm. The wall surface of the endocarp (C) is a hard, woody great that provides up the inner part of the fruit wall. The thick, fibrous husk (mesocarp) the surrounds the endocarp has actually been removed.
Sprouting fruit that a coconut Cocos nucifera. The hard inner class (endocarp) includes the really seed composed of a minute embryo and food storage organization (endosperm). The basic of the embryo (cotyledon) swells right into an taking in organ that fills the entire cavity of the seed as it digests the endosperm. The endocarp has actually three germination pores, one functional pore and two plugged pores. The 3 pores represent three carpels, usual of the palm family (Arecaceae). Just inside the practical germination sharp is a minute embryo installed in the endosperm tissue. During germination, a spongy massive develps native the base of the embryo and also fills the seed cavity. This fixed of organization is called the "coconut apple" and also is essentially the functional cotyledon that the seed. that dissolves and also absorbs the nutrient-rich endosperm tissue to it is provided the occurring shoot with sugars and also minerals. Eventualy, the emerging palm becomes self sufficient, together its leaves develop sugars with photosynthesis and also its root absorb minerals from the soil. The coconut "apple" is rich in sugars and also is a sweet delicacy in tropical countries. The endosperm is the coconut "meat" i m sorry is dried and sold as "copra." The coconut "water" is multinucleate fluid endosperm inside eco-friendly coconuts that has not developed into solid tissue written of cells. Before the fluid endosperm forms a hard "meat" it is jellylike and may be eaten with a spoon. This phase of the endosperm development is referred to as "spoon meat." The "coconut milk" supplied in many asian recipes is made by soaking grated coconut meat in water and squeezing the end the oil-rich liquid. "Coir" fibers are acquired from the fibrous mesocarp. The saturated fat referred to as "coconut oil" is acquired from the meaty endosperm.
A note For biological 100 Students: In exalbuminous seeds, such together lima beans and walnuts, the endosperm has been completely absorbed by the embryo. The embryo of these seeds is composed of two significant halves dubbed cotyledons. Attached between the cotyledons is a minute, primordial, leaf-bearing shoot called the plumule and an elongate primordial root referred to as the radicle. See adhering to photo:
The embryo that a lima bean seed showing the embryonic shoot or plumule (A), the embryonic source or radicle (B) and two cotyledons (C). The two fleshy halves referred to as cotyledons space actually component of the embryo. The seeds coat (D) has actually been partly removed native the cotyledons. Because the seed coat originates from the outer wall surface of the ovule (called the integument), i m sorry was component of the original maternal particle parent, that is chromosomally similar with the initial diploid seeds parent.
See The framework Of A Coconut FruitRead about Ocean Dispersal the CoconutsRead around Coconuts and also The Coconut CrabSee The twin Coconut: worlds Largest Seed
Chromosome number In Polyploid PlantsI choose the state "gametophyte" and "sporophyte" as soon as dicussing polyploid chromosome numbers. Gametophyte refers to the chromosone variety of gametes and sporophyte describes the chromosome variety of cells in adult plants. In humans, haploid (n) refers to the chromosome number of gametes, when diploid (2n) describes the chromosome number after ~ fertilization; however, in polyploid tree the chromosome number are really different. For example, I have studied a rare hybrid Brodiaea in mountain Marcos through a sporophyte chromosome number of 36. This is a hexaploid hybrid because the haploid number in Brodiaea types is 6 (6n = 36). The hybrid was acquired from a cross in between B. Terrestris ssp. Kernensis v an octoploid (8n) sporophyte number of 48, and also B. Filifolia through a tetraploid (4n) sporophyte number of 24. The gametes that these 2 parents room tetraploid (4n) and also diploid (2n), causing a hexaploid (6n) hybrid: 4n + 2n = 6n. In this case, introduce to the gametes as haploid (n) and also the hybrid offspring as diploid (2n), as we carry out in humans, would certainly be incorrect.Chromosome number Of The Rare san Marcos Hybrid Beodiaea
Questions 35-40: A maturation angiosperm pollen grain contains a pipe nucleus and also a generative nucleus, the latter of i m sorry divides into 2 sperm within the pollen tube. Because that this question, a hypothetical sperm-bearing angiosperm pollen tube includes a total of 12 chromosomes. Because the pollen tube consists of 3 nuclei (a tube nucleus and also 2 sperm nuclei), you must divide the 12 chromosomes through 3 in bespeak to calculate the variety of chromosomes per nucleus. Each nucleus in ~ the pollen tube has one haploid collection of chromosomes. The egg additionally contains a haploid set of chromosomes, while the zygote is diploid (with 2 set of chromosomes) and the endosperm is triploid (with 3 sets of chromosomes).Questions 41-47: This seven-celled embryo sac consists of eight haploid nuclei, each with one set of chromosomes. The 7 cells include three antipodal cells, one endosperm mommy cell, 2 synergid cells and one egg. All of these 7 cells contain a solitary nucleus except for the endosperm mommy cell which contains two polar nuclei. The haploid number of chromosomes every nucleus deserve to be uncovered by splitting the total number of 32 chromosomes in this embryo sac through 8.Questions 48-51: The chromosomal answers to this questions can be found in the Wayne"s word article around vegetables the the mustard family. The diploid chromosome number (two set of chromosomes) because that a radish is 18 and also the diploid chromosome number for cabbage is likewise 18. The haploid number (one collection of chromosomes) for these species is nine. Therfore, the gametes that the radish and also cabbage contain nine chromosomes. Because the radish and cabbage belong to various genera, the offspring resulting from this cross is called a bigeneric hybrid. The diploid (2n) hybrid is sterile because the chromosomes the the parents are not truly homologous; therefore, the hybrid does not have actually viable gametes and cannot create viable seeds. The tetraploid (4n = 36) rabbage is fertile and also can create viable seeds. The two sets of ripe homologous radish chromosomes can pair up with each other, and also the 2 sets of ripe homologous cabbage chromosomes can also pair up through each other.Questions 63-74: answers to these questions have the right to be uncovered in the adhering to articles, particularly the articles about the usual fig (Ficus carica) that is get an impression commercially in the san Joaquin sink of California.
A hereditary Cross in between WatermelonsQuestions 75-80: Questions around a cross between two theoretical watermelons.In watermelons the gene for environment-friendly rind (G) is leading over the gene for striped rind (g), and also the gene for quick fruit (S) is dominant over the gene for lengthy fruit (s). The alleles for rind color and also fruit length occur on two various pairs that homologous chromosomes. For this question, assume that a gene for big melons (L) and and gene for countless seeds (F) take place at opposite end of one more chromosome (linkage). The alleles for size and seed number, i.e. The genes for tiny melons (l) and few seeds (f), take place on a 3rd homologous chromosome. A watermelon plant bearing large, green, quick fruits containing many seeds was crossed with a tree bearing large, striped, lengthy fruits containing countless seeds. Few of the offspring indigenous this cross developed small, striped, long fruits with couple of seeds.Assuming no cross over in between homologous chromosomes, what is the fractional opportunity of developing the adhering to offspring? Remember the there room three pairs of homologous chromosomes in this problem, and one that the homologous bag exhibits autosomal linkage. The chromosomes the each parent are presented in the adhering to illustration:
There space several methods to resolve this problem, yet one way is to build a 16 square checkerboard with eight rows and two columns. To the left of each row, placed the eight gametes that the parental plant bearing large, green, brief fruits containing plenty of seeds. At the height of every column, placed the two gametes of the parental tree bearing large, striped, long fruits containing many seeds. The most difficult part that this difficulty is to figure out the exact gene combinations of the gametes. When this is known, you have the right to simply fill in the squares the the checkerboard v the correct gene combine (genotypes) for each offspring. Remember the each genotype should contain eight letters: one LF or lf, plus 2 G"s (GG, Gg or gg) and two S"s (SS, Ss or ss). Because that example, among the 16 squares consists of the genotype LLFFGgSs; one of the 16 squares contains the genotype LLFFGgss; two of the 16 squares includes the genotype LlFfGgss; and one of the 16 squares contains the genotype llffGgSs. There a complete of 12 various genotypes in the checkerboard.GametesLFgslfgsLFGSLLFFGgSsLlFfGgSsLFGsLLFFGgssLlFfGgssLFgSLLFFggSsLlFfggSsLFgsLLFFggssLlFfggsslfGSLlFfGgSsllffGgSslfGsLlFfGgssllffGgsslfgSLlFfggSsllffggSslfgsLlFfggssllffggssCheckerboard reflecting Cross in between WatermelonsThe gene combine of the gametes are shown in the over Table 1. The tree bearing large, striped, long fruits containing plenty of seeds can create only two various kinds the gametes (shown in red in Table 1) . The gametes need to contain one of the LF or lf chromosomes, one of the g chromosomes, and also one the the s chromosomes. Therefore, the two possible gametes are: LFgs and also lfgs. The LF and also lf genes constantly appear together since they happen on the same chromosomes. Without crossing over, you could never have actually Lf with each other or lF together.The tree bearing large, green, short fruits containing numerous seeds can create eight different kinds that gametes (shown in eco-friendly in Table 1). The gametes need to contain one of the LF or lf chromosomes, one of the G or g chromosomes, and also one that the S or s chromosomes. Since there are two possibilities for each the the 3 kinds of chromosomes, there are eight different possible gametes (2 x 2 x 2 = 8). Four of the eight gametes will contain LF to add GS, Gs, gS or gs. 4 of the eight gametes will contain lf add to GS, Gs, gS or gs.When all the 16 squares of the checkerboard are filled in, simply find the genotypes in the squares that are explained in questions 77-80. The exactly answers space expressed as a fountain ratio, such together 1/16. Remember the L = huge fruit and l = small fruit; F = many seeds and also f = couple of seeds; G = environment-friendly rind and also g = striped rind; S = brief fruit and also s = long fruit. The capital letters represent dominant genes (alleles) when the little case letters stand for recessive genes (alleles). Therefore, a plant with a genotype the LlFfGgss would produce big (L), eco-friendly (G), long (s), fruits containing numerous (F) seeds. A genotype that LlFfggSs would certainly produce big (L), strip (g), quick (S) fruit containing plenty of (F) seedsPart V, part VI, part VII, part VIII and part XI contain equivalent questions 81 - 216. Most of the answer to this questions have the right to be found in the reading List for test #3, the Wayne"s native Index, and also Economic tree Families. Answers to numerous of the fruit form questions space in the Fruit to know Outline. Beneficial hyperlinks for questions about plant genetics, figs, watermelons, etc. Are discovered in the above sections for questions 1 - 80.
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