M. Hayashi, ... Joseph L. Knee, in Encyclopedia that Physical science and an innovation (Third Edition), 2003

III.B.2 energy Transfer in Antenna

The duty of the antenna pigments is to collect light energy from the sun and also transfer it to reaction centers. In eco-friendly plants and also algae, this pigments are discovered in the thylakoid membranes the chloroplasts. In photosynthesis bacteria, the colors are found in intracytoplasmic membrane or in one-of-a-kind vesicles in the cell. The rule antenna pigments space chlorophyll a and also b in plants, chlorophyll c in some algae, and bacteriochlorophyll a, b, or c in bacteria. Other pigments, dubbed accessory pigments, space carotenoids and phycobiliproteins. Complying with light absorb by a pigment molecule, the electronic excitation is moved until that is trapped through a reaction center.

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Cyanobacteria and also red algae use antenna pigments dubbed phycobilins packed into complexes called phycobilisomes, which room attached to the photosynthetic membranes. Phycobilisomes contain several hundred exchange rate chromophores, straight tetrapyrroles attached come the protein. This proteins space organized right into disks that room themselves stacked into rods, with disks containing much shorter wavelength colors on one end, and longer wavelength pigments in ~ the other end next to a main core. Thus the shorter wavelength absorbers: phycoerythrins (PE), 570 nm; space on the outside, phycocyanins (PC), 630 nm; in ~ them, allophycocyanins (APC), 650 nm; in the core, followed by chlorophyll a within the photosynthesis membrane.

The X-ray crystal structure of the trimeric aggregation state of APC isolated indigenous the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is well-characterized: the APC trimer have the right to be described as a C3-symmetric, ring-like homotrimer that α and β polypeptide monomers. The phycocyanobilin chromophore (PCB) is arranged as dimers formed throughout the polypeptide interfaces between nearby α, β polypeptide monomers.

The absorption spectra that the homogenous monomers for APC are almost identical to the of the α-subunit, and also it has an absorb maximum at 614 nm while trimers have a spicy maximum in ~ 650 nm and also a prominent shoulder at around 610–620 nm. The beginning of electronic states associated in steady-state spectroscopy is necessary for knowledge of femtosecond time-resolved spectra, particularly when one relates the system of the kinetics appearing in the time-resolved spectra to nonradiative transitions amongst the electronic states. If digital Hamiltonian is totally diagonalized, in other words, delocalized electronic wavefunction is used to define the system, nonradiative transitions between the same spin multiplicity need to be due to the break-down of the adiabatic approximation, i.e., interior conversion (IC) process. In this case, to calculation the electronic coupling constant, the Förster or Marcus kind of rate continuous cannot be used. Vibrational nature are likewise needed to calculation the electronic coupling constant. Vibrational frequencies associated in optical transition of APC trimer have the right to be derived by using a pump-probe an approach with 20-fsec laser pulses. Number 5 reflects femtosecond pump-probe signals of APC trimer at room temperature together a function of the research wavenumber. Every signal plainly shows oscillatory features referred to as “quantum beats” add by with rising or disc components. Insets of dashboard A exhibit oscillatory components extracted native the it was observed signals. Performing Fourier transform evaluation to these oscillatory contents provides possible vibrational frequencies involved in the optical transition. This information have the right to be offered to calculation the electronic coupling constant.


where S∣(τ) and S⊥(τ) are pump-probe transients derived with parallel and also perpendicular pump and also probe polarizations, respectively. Number 6 shows obtained femtosecond anisotropy signal of APC trimer excited at 620 nm and also probed in ~ 660 and also 620 nm. The derived anisotropy shows that over there exist at the very least two digital states between 660 and also 620 nm. Fitting the anisotropy degeneration signal of probing at 660 nm to a single exponential decay function yields roughly 350 fsec. This result implies that the electronically excited state via the 620 nm pump-pulse experience nonradiative transition to one of the lower digital states within 350 fsec. The origin and also nature the the electronic states the the APC trimer are still under considerable investigation.


Dongda Zhang, Ehecatl A. Del Rio-Chanona, in computer system Aided chemical Engineering, 2018

1 Introduction

C-phycocyanin is a blue antenna pigment provided to enhance the photosynthetic effectiveness of cyanobacteria and also red birds (Eriksen 2008). It has been known as a high-value bioproduct with great potential in the pharmaceutical market (Chen et al. 2013; Kuddus et al. 2013). Currently, extensive research has actually been carried out to determine the metabolic mechanisms of C-phycocyanin synthetic in cyanobacterium A. Platensis. It has been demonstrated the nitrate concentration and illumination intensity space the most important components determining both the content and the performance of phycocyanin (Xie et al. 2015; del Rio-Chanona et al. 2015). Meanwhile, to accomplish the industrialization the phycocyanin production, two requirements should be satisfied. First, that is essential to determine the optimal operating conditions for phycocyanin synthesis and also biomass expansion so that the process efficiency have the right to be maximized. Second, a final phycocyanin content greater than 10 % the cell dry weight need to be guaranteed; otherwise the expense of the colours downstream separation will be considerably increased.

To attend to the two requirements, mathematics models have come to be an indispensable device to identify the procedure optimal operating problems for permanent biomass cultivation and phycocyanin production. Recently, a kinetic model capable of simulating cyanobacterial biomass growth and also phycocyanin manufacturing under different light intensities and also nitrate concentrations has been proposed (del Rio-Chanona et al. 2015). However, together a kinetic model is a leveling of a highly facility metabolic network which requires a significant amount of metabolic reactions, the suspicion of a kinetic version is in general huge and the procedure optimization results greatly rely on the accuracy that the model. As a result, it is crucial to think about the impacts of model uncertainty ~ above the procedure prediction and also optimal control. Therefore, in this research a bilevel programming frame is designed to optimize C-phycocyanin production with apprehension under a fed-batch long-term procedure system.

S.E. Braslavsky, in Photochromism, 2003


Biological photoreceptors have actually been classified as either irradiate transducers (photosensors or photoperceptors), sensing the quality and also quantity of radiation, or as energy converters. Amongst the an initial there room (a) various molecular types triggering photomovement at assorted levels, e. G., motion of motile organisms, intracellular movement, and also movement of tree organs in higher plants (ref. 1), (b) phytochrome, miscellaneous blue light/UV-A (320–400 nm) and UV-B (280–320 nm) photoreceptors (ref. 2), every one of which control to different degrees plant growth and also development, and also (c) the visual pigments, in specific rhodopsin in vertebrates and also various types of pigments in invertebrates (ref. 3). Amongst the power converters we uncover bacteriorhodopsin and also the protein complexes the the chlorophylls and of bacteriochlorophyll. In addition, the antenna colors (accesory pigments), like e. G., phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, allophycocyanin, offer to transfer the energy of the absorbed light to the reaction facility in algae.

Most biological photoreceptor systems space photochromic, i. E., after ~ performing the photochemically motivated reaction, the mechanism is somehow revived to its early stage state and also is ready to absorb one more quantum that radiation in order come photoinitiate again the details function. Few of these pigments stay photochromic as soon as isolated from the living complicated system of i m sorry they room part. This is the instance for phytochrome. I will concentrate the discussion on this pigment. It has two stable forms that space transformed into each other by light of appropriate wavelength and also it does not need secondary partner in stimulate to finish the photochromic cycle.

Some years back Max Delbrück propose a general principle marking the difference in between the light-transducer and the energy-converter photoreceptors. In the former, after ~ the absorb of radiation a functional chromophore would cause protein conformational transforms inducing this way the infection of a signal. Alternatively, a rigidly enclosed chromophore would only bring about charge separation in the energy converters or to power transfer in the accessory antenna colours (ref. 4). The basic validity of this concept has not yet been fully established. It is in ~ the structure of the communication chromophore-protein that i will discuss the molecular basis because that the change of the 2 photochromic develops of phytochrome.

This chapter is not intended together a testimonial of the molecule properties of the pigment. The is rather a condensed exposition ~ above the current views and also thoughts on the molecular basis for the transformation between the two stable creates of the pigment. Fantastic reviews on various other facets of the molecule and also its activity have been composed recently and they will be cited in the proper context.

For the discussion of the photochromism that the retinal proteins view chapter 20 and also 29.

Pigment molecules of assorted kinds enable photosynthetic organisms to both catch light and convert the recorded light energy into chemistry energy. Light-harvesting colors (primarily the chlorophylls) record light native the sunlight and form excited pigments. The linked excitation power of lot of pigment molecule is concentrated in a single pigment molecule well-known as the reaction center (RC) and also used to reduce acceptor molecules. The light-harvesting apparatus (the RC to add multiple accessory pigments) or antenna pigments absorb light and also excitation energy is produced. This excitation power moves v the antenna molecules to the RC wherein an electron is excited and also lost. The electron the is lost from the colors is then replaced by an electron from another source in the environment. In photosynthesis bacteria, a wide variety of compounds may donate electron to the oxidized pigment. In cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes, ferns, and higher plants water is provided as the resource of electrons and also diatomic oxygen (O2) is released:

2H2O+light energy+photosynthetic pigments→O2+4H++4e−.

The most common pigment molecule in higher plants is chlorophyll, yet there are countless other pigments involved in photosynthesis across different organisms, including phycocyanin, phycocoerythrin, and allophycocyanin in blue-green and red algae and also carotenoids and xanthophylls in most greater plants and also some algae and also bacteria.

In both bacteria and greater photosynthetic biology the excited electron are provided to form reducing molecules, either nicotinamide adenine di nucleotide (NADH) or, more commonly in photosynthesis organisms, NADPH. Simultaneously, through electron transport, proton accumulate ~ above one side of a moving membrane, forming a proton concentration gradient, the energy of i m sorry is used to create ATP v the phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate. ATP and NADPH provide reducing power and also energy to virtually all biological energy and also matter revolution reactions.

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Kuan-Yeow Show, ... Duu-Jong Lee, in Biofuels from algae (Second Edition), 2019

1 Introduction

Global initiatives in developing microalgal intracellular products and biofuels together food nutrition and renewable energy source have been farming rapidly. Biofuels are regarded as promising options to fossil fuels in mitigating the pushing greenhouse gas emissions and also diminishing power resource. However, sustainable production of biofuels is being challenged since it is viewed that biofuels created from crops, ligno-cellulose, and also food sources face various limit in accomplishing sustainable advance at the confluence of biofuel production, climate change mitigation, and economic growth. As algal biomass is capable of developing much more extraction returns per unit farming area and that carbon dioxide record via birds is one to two orders of magnitude higher than terrestrial tree <1>, production of algal food products and biodiesel has attracted increasing interest because of that is promising prospect for practical applications.

Algae space a very diverse team of mostly aquatic photosynthetic organisms the account for almost 50% of the photosynthesis taking place on planet <2>. Algae have a wide selection of antenna colors to convert solar energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis giving various strains of algae their properties colors. At an early stage work done v algae added much come what is presently known around the carbon dioxide permanent pathway and the irradiate harvesting photosynthetic reactions. The processes of photosynthesis in algae and also terrestrial plants are an extremely much alike. Among the three species of carbon dioxide permanent mechanisms recognized in photosynthesis organisms, two of i m sorry are discovered in the genus of algae <2>. Moreover, studies suggested that carbon dioxide continuous in birds is one to 2 orders of magnitude higher than terrestrial plants <3>. Thus, algae are thought to pat a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by capturing excess carbon dioxide from the air environment.

Cultivation of swiftly grown microalgae may obtain only 1% of soil area needed of standard crop-based plantation lands. A microalgae production scenario approximated the use of just 121,000 ha of open pond or 58,000 ha the photo-bioreactors footprint in meeting worldwide annual gasoline requirements <4>. Furthermore, wastewaters enriched through nutrients such as nitrogen and/or phosphorous can be provided as a cultivation medium for algal cultivation, it is negative the require for fertilizers obtained from fossil fuel energy. Additionally, absorb of the nutrients by algae for biomass buildup every se is a kind of therapy to the wastewater in meeting effluent discharge requirements. In enhancement to biofuel production, cultivated microalgae have the right to be provided as mass commodities in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and functional foods items <5>.

Algae have been well-known as a promising biofuel source due come their efficient conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. As birds biomass is qualified of producing much much more oil yield per growing broth area than other biofuels such as corn and also soybean crops, algal biodiesel has actually attracted widespread attention due to the fact that of its prospect for large-scale practical use <6>.

Algal biodiesel manufacturing involve miscellaneous stages that processing starting with algal cultivation, harvesting with separation of the algal biomass from the cultivation medium, biomass concentration and also dewatering, complied with by more processing such as drying, cell disruption, oil extraction, and fractionation (Fig. 1). Together algal dry is one integral downstream procedure of harvesting, this thing delineates a literature review and discussion on recent developments in algal harvesting and drying. Commercial application of algal biofuel is facing various constraints, including major issues the expensive costs of production and also harvesting. This constraints are disputed in section 4. The review intends to administer useful details for future advancement of efficient and also commercially viable algal biodiesel production.

System featureAqueous cultivation advantage
Photosynthetic efficiencyHigher photosynthetic performance leads to carbon fixation rates 10–50 times greater in microalgae contrasted to terrestrial plants
Land usageWith efficient accessibility to water, CO2, and nutrients, microalgae deserve to lead to greater productivity per unit of soil usage compared to terrestrial crops
Process simplicitySimpler system with fewer procedure variables than terrestrial agroecosystem crops, making procedure engineering for higher yield less complicated and an ext generic
Continuous production and also harvestingAvoids the unproductive period during which new terrestrial plants are becoming established, maximizing photosynthetic manufacturing period
Nutrient controlEnables consistent optimization of level of CO2 and also nutrients (nitrogen and also phosphorus) to maximize lipid production
Specific productivityPhotosynthetic NPP is not “wasted” in creating roots, stems, etc., which have actually low or zero yield of end product (e.g., contrasted to oilseed crops)
Land and water qualityAqueous cultivation of algae can use poor-quality land and also water that is unsuitable for conventional chop production

These advantages are balanced by the cost of solution to supply CO2 and for consistent cultivation and harvesting, which space a significant cost factor due to low biomass intensity result from the low concentration and also microscopic nature of algal cells.

22.3.1 Algal biomass production systems

Algal farming in shallow open created ponds has been taken into consideration as a CO2 capture an approach for strength plant flue gases, and also such open systems are commonly able to convert 1%–2% of complete incident solar power into stored chemical power under the high-intensity levels typical of full sunlight. This compares come a usual 0.1%–0.2% of sunlight converted right into biomass for terrestrial plants grown under similar outdoor conditions, although part crops, such as irrigated sugarcane, can achieve similar productivity to algae cultures. To record the CO2 from a offered power plant, the algae growing ponds would because of this have to be such the the complete incident solar power was in the bespeak of 100 time the power plant output.

Algae farms based on open ponds, as portrayed schematically in figure 22.5, are supplied commercially to create algal strains such together spirulina for use as “nutraceuticals.” solution of this kind are activate by birds producers in the united States, consisting of Earthrise Farms, CA, and also Cyanotech Corp., HI, and in several various other countries, principally China and India.

For usage in a large-scale catch project, individual ponds would variety up to 10 hectares (ha) in area, contrasted to commonly 0.5 ha at present, through a complete area the >10,000 ha being required to record a preferably 30% of the CO2 released from a 500 MW coal-fired power plant.

This kind of open pond device was demonstrated in the late 1980s top top a 0.1 ha scale at the us Department of energy site in Roswell, NM, afford a 3.5% visible light conversion effectiveness (roughly fifty percent of this level based on total solar input) and producing an extrapolated 70 t-biomass/ha-year throughout the summer months.

A microalgal record pilot project arisen by GreenFuel Technologies and also Debacsa, a subsidiary that the Spanish team Aurantia, commenced treating flue gas native a cement plant in Jerez, Spain, in December 2007 using an open pond system. A 2nd development phase utilizing a 100 m2 prototype vertical thin-film closed photobioreactor was initiated in so late 2008, however plans for a demonstration-scale follow-up job using microalgal-derived biofuel to power a 30 MW cogeneration plant were terminated in 2009.

The challenges of open pond systems and closed photobioreactors explained in the complying with section, include:

Poor irradiate conversion efficiency

Incomplete catch due come the i can not qualify to sustain a high

Contamination that the society by undesirable algal species and algal predators

Heat losses or overheating, requiring heating or cooling and/or limiting site applicability

High cost of harvesting and processing

Contamination may be particularly problematic in open up systems if an unwanted local varieties outcompetes a species that has actually been specifically selected for part characteristic such together high lipid production. However, contamination is additionally an problem in closeup of the door systems, which may be more daunting to clean as soon as contaminated.

Light conversion efficiency and saturation

Although algae are able to photoyynthesize under an extremely low irradiate levels, their capability to convert incident light saturates in ~ a irradiate intensity about equivalent come a glowing overcast job (about one-tenth of full straight sunlight). At higher intensities in its entirety light conversion effectiveness is reduced and incident light over this saturation soot (IS) is wasted. Because that the about 10-fold boost in light intensity indigenous IS approximately a full sunlit day, just a ~two- come threefold rise in photosynthesis conversion will happen in a revolution aqueous culture, so the 70%–80% the solar energy is wasted together a an outcome of saturation.

Incident light above the saturation intensity deserve to still be properly used if the duration of illumination is really short (Table 22.2.

Table 22.2. Methods to rise light conversion performance in microalgae cultivation

Turbulent mixingIncreasing the disturbance of the culture under illumination results in enhanced light counter efficiency due to the fact that under illuminated society is frequently lugged up to the saturation soot level
Light redistributionUse the optical systems, such together waveguides, to command high-intensity incident sunlight and distribute an ext uniformly throughout the bioreactor
Reactor geometryVertical reactor geometry to boost the surface ar to volume ratio and achieve more uniform illumination close to the saturation intensity
Selection and also genetic engineering of algal speciesVariations in irradiate sensitivity the different types of algae carry out the chance to optimize light conversion performance through species an option and design (e.g., reducing the “antenna” pigment)

A more novel approach, propose by TNO in the Netherlands (Könst et al., 2017), is to integrate algae manufacturing in a an ext traditional absorber–regenerator configuration, as portrayed in number 22.6. In this scheme, which has been demonstrated at activities scale, carbon is delivered to the photobioreactor liquified in the wealthy solvent, through lean, regenerated solvent recirculated to the absorber. Absorption is came before by flue-gas scrubbing to remove SOx and NOx, which deserve to inhibit algal growth.

Lipids have the right to be extract from algal biomass by a variety of processes, i m sorry may incorporate drying or the use of solvents, depending upon the algal species, strain, and also growing conditions. 2 potential processes are:

Cell disruption adhered to by emulsification v recycled oil and also centrifuging

Cold press extraction of 75%–80% that the oil, adhered to by solvent extraction making use of hexane (C6H14) or diethyl ether (C2H5OC2H5), the solvents then being separated and also recovered through distillation. Exploit can additionally be accomplished using a supercritical fluid such together scCO2 or methanol.

The following locations are gift addressed by recurring R&D and also pilot-scale demonstration programs:

Optimization that photobioreactor configuration to get over light saturation results and achieve other efficiency benefits

Alternative bioreactor designs for microalgae farming (e.g., growth of biofilms in porous support bioreactors)

Protection of the open pond cultures versus invasion by other algal strains

Genetic engineering to mitigate antenna colors concentration and increase oil yield

Optimization and also control equipment for photobioreactors (irradiance, nutrients, acidity, etc.) to maximize product yield

Development that low-cost harvesting systems for particular algal strains (e.g., centrifugation, filtration, floatation, and also flocculation)

Processing of harvested algal biomass to extract oil and also yield high-value residues

In situ transesterification that lipids there is no prior extraction from algal biomass

All photosynthetic systems have actually an inherent power gradient that dictates the circulation of energy among the pigments. In violet bacteria, this is offered by B800→B850→B880→RC (note the the beneficial contributions that carotenoids, which carry out accessory light harvesting in addition to other crucial functions, room ignored). The connected time constants for these transfer actions are shown in figure 3. The lifetime of an secluded antenna complex, decoupled from the reaction center, is of the order of 1 ns. Throughout this time, the excitation energy moves freely among the lowest-energy pigments of the antenna network, until at some point dissipated by nonradiative relaxation processes. In the complete photosynthetic unit, whereby antennas are associated to reaction centers, the excitation is trapped within 30–50 ps. For this reason under physiological conditions, virtually all the energy is made use of for photochemistry.

In the weak coupling incoherent limit, the rate of energy transfer (energy hopping) native a donor come an agree molecule is established by three different molecular properties: the digital coupling between donor and also acceptor (V), the overlap of donor fluorescence and acceptor absorb spectra (J), and also the relative orientation that the molecules (κ), and also given by


Carotenoids, natural pigments, comprise carotenes and xanthophylls. Hydrocarbon carotenoids have no substituent in their structures (β-carotene, lycopene), when xanthophylls space oxycarotenoids, which means that they space oxygen-containing molecule (e.g., astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, and lutein). There are plenty of reviews about the various carotenoids created by microalgae in nature (Sathasivam and Ki, 2018; Cezare-Gomes et al., 2019; Singh and Das, 2011; Saini et al., 2018). Fig. 23.1 shows typical carotenoid structures from photosynthesis microorganisms.

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MAAs are molecules with water-soluble, colorless, and also uncharged properties, having actually low molecular load (Chrapusta et al., 2017; Lawrence et al., 2019). Lock share their general structure with different substituents (amino acids), consisting of a cyclohexenone or cyclohexenimine chromophore through the nitrogen substituent (Fig. 23.2) (Nakamura et al., 1982; singh et al., 2008; Favre-Bonvin et al., 1976). In addition, with further carboxylation or demethylation, the UV absorption properties can be modification (Singh et al., 2008).