Presentation top top theme: "What is Personality? Personality consists of the important distinctions in the method people law Personality has the consistent way in which people behave."— Presentation transcript:




You are watching: Reasonably stable patterns of actions, feelings, and motives are referred to as

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2 What is Personality? Personality includes the important differences in the means people law Personality contains the consistent method in which people behave. Personality is defined as distinctive, unique, and reasonably enduring methods of thinking, feeling, and acting

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3 Personality Personality is an interaction between biology and environment Personality refers to a person’s distinct and reasonably stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and also actions * genetic studies suggest inheritability of personality features * various other studies imply learned materials of personality

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4 PHRENOLOGY – The examine of personality based on the distinctive shapes of a skull. Phrenology is just one of the earliest attempts to define personality.

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5 part people believe in the worth of phrenology today however other theory of personality are now more accepted.

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6 four Theories of Personality 1. Characteristics 2. Psychoanalytic 3. Mankind 4. Behaviorism and Socio-Cognitive

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7 TRAIT theory Trait Theorists define personality follow to the characteristics (characteristics) that world display top top a regular basis. Every Trait Theorists have actually two an essential beliefs: 1. All human being possess all traits 2. All traits deserve to be quantified

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8 The very first Trait theory UNSTABLE secure choleric melancholic phlegmaticsanguine INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED Moody Anxious rigid Sober pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easygoing vivid Carefree leadership Passive mindful Thoughtful Peaceful managed Reliable Even-tempered calm Touchy Restless wild Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic energetic Hans Eysenck (1916- 1997) theorized the introverted human being share specific traits, when extraverted human being share the contrary traits. His size of Personality theory includes: stability vs. Instability, Extraversion vs. Introversion, and also Psychoticism. (Cool and also calm) (Easily Irritable) (Somber and Sad) (Cheerful and Confident)

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9 Personality traits Gordon Allport (1897-1997)identified about4500 traits the all human being possess and also divided them right into two groups: common Traits – those that apply to everyone Individual traits – those that use to a certain person. The individual traits are: 1. Cardinal trait – a trait that is so strong it nearly identifies the person. 2. Central Trait – a trait that provides us predictable. 3. An additional Trait – our preferences, such as for food or music. Because an additional traits adjust from time come time they room the least essential to our personality.

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10 Personality traits Raymond Cattell determined personality follow to a mathematical technique called aspect analysis. It explains the level to which different personality variables room related. Using factor analysis Cattell theorized that there are 16 source traits – properties that room at the core of personality. By measuring these traits, psychologists might predict people’s habits in details situations.

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11 Cattell’s Sixteen resource Traits Raymond Cattell (1905-1998)

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12 The huge “5” all trait theorists have devised a variety of ways to measure up personality. Each requires a different variety of traits or factors. Yet all properties psychologists have shown that 5 traits show up repeatedly in their studies. Those 5 traits are called “The huge 5”.

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13 assessing Trait concept “The big 5” trait Theory model is may be to define personality: * based on cross-cultural person studies that find great agreement because that the large 5 version in many cultures * due to the fact that there appears to be very correlated behaviors not just in adulthood, but also in childhood and even so late preschoolers objections of trait concept include: 2. Absence of explanation as to WHY traits construct 1. The an obstacle of explaining transient versus long-lasting characteristics

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14 PSYCHOANALYTIC theory Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) arisen Psychoanalytic theory, to define personality ~ above the communication of unconscious forces affecting behavior. Freud argued that together we have actually impulses that reason us anxiety; our personality establishes Defense instrument to protect against anxiety Freud suggested that Personality is made up of many parts, some of which room unconscious (below ours level the awareness) He declared that we are unaware of some aspects of our psychological states due to the fact that we have various Levels of consciousness

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15 The construct of the psychic 1. Id – the part of the unconscious personality that has our needs, drives, instincts, and also repressed material. The operates top top the “pleasure principle”. 3. Ego – the component of personality the is in touch v reality and also strives to fulfill the requirements of the id and also the superego in socially acceptable ways. The operates ~ above the “reality principle”. 2. Superego – the component of personality the is the resource of conscience and also counteracts the socially undersirable impulses of the id. It contains values and ideals.

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16 Freudian concept Freud proposed the there room three level of consciousness 3. Unconscious Wishes, feelings, impulses the lies past awareness the is the ar of the Id and also some aspects of the Superego 2. Preconscious memory etc. That deserve to be recalled 1. Conscious What we’re conscious of the is the ar of the Ego and some facets of the Superego

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17 Freudian theory s stress and anxiety occurs once there is a conflict in between the Id and the Superego and as a an outcome the Ego feeling threatened. The ego faces the difficulty through: coping tactics by taking care of the trouble directly or through the use of Defense mechanisms Impulses native the identifier threaten to get out that control and the ego perceives risk from the environment

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18 Defense instrument Defense mechanisms are unconscious mental processes that safeguard the conscious part of a who personality (ego) from emerging anxiety. Some examples are: Repression: anxiety-evoking thoughts space pushed right into the unconscious Denial: person refuses to recognize reality Projection: person qualities their own unacceptable impulses to rather Sublimation: person networks energy from i can not accept impulses to develop socially acceptable achievements

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19 Defense instrument (cont.) Rationalization: Substituting socially acceptable factors Displacement: Substituting a less threatening object because that the original object of advertise Regression: Responding to a threatening case in a way appropriate to an earlier age or level of breakthrough Reaction formation: Refusing to identify unacceptable urges, think or feeling by exaggerating opposing state Intellectualization: skip the emotional elements of a painful suffer by concentrating on abstract thoughts, words, or concepts

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20 Assessing the Unconscious Projective Tests used to assess personality (e.g., Rorschach or TAT tests) How? offers ambiguous stimuli and also subject projects his or her motives into the pass out stimuli

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21 Assessing the Unconscious -- Rorschach Rorschach Inkblot check the many widely provided projective test a collection of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach Rorschach

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22 Assessing the Unconscious-- Rorschach provided to identify people’s within feelings by analyzing their interpretations that the blots

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28 Assessing the Unconscious-- TAT thematic Apperception test (TAT) human being express your inner motives through the stories they do up about ambiguous scene

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31 PSYCHOANALYTICS IN FREUD’S FOOTSTEPS Alfred Adler (1870-1937) believed that the driving force in people’s stays is a desire to conquer their feel of inferiority. He thought that everyone struggles with inferiority. A person who continually tries come compensate for his weakness and avoid feel of inadequacy has an inferiority complex.

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32 PSYCHOANALYTICS IN FREUD’S FOOTSTEPS Alfred Adler thought people are motivated by society interest and also develop one agreeable lifestyle in stimulate to feeling superior. Adler also believed that birth order significantly affects personality. Very first Born - Privileged until Dethroned 2nd Born - In shadow of first Born  inferiority, restlessness Youngest - Pampered, dependent only Child - higher intellect, timid, passive, & withdrawn

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33 PSYCHOANALYTICS IN FREUD’S FOOTSTEPS Archetypes transcend cultures and also can be uncovered in social myths, spiritual beliefs, and symbols be separate by time. Archetypes influence our thoughts and feelings and assist us construct the structure of our personalities. Carl Jung (1875-1961) operated with Freud yet disagreed with Freud in some ways. He thought that all world have a: personal Unconscious: distinct for each person (similar come Freud’s idea of the unconscious) collective Unconscious: a storehouse of instincts, urges, and also memories for all humanity. These inherited, universal concepts are referred to as archetypes.

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34 HUMANISM theory Humanism rejects the biological determinism and irrational unconscious forces of the Psychoanalytics humanity personality theories emphasize an individual growth and the accomplishment of maximum potential by each unique individual. Humanism views each person as basically an excellent and with flexibility in make choices. Human being are striving for self- fulfillment. Humanism suggests that people bring a perception of themselves and also of the world. The goal for a humanist is to develop/promote a optimistic self-concept.

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35 humanity Perspectives Carl Rogers (1902-1987) believes the goal of all civilization is to be “fully- functioning”. To it is in fully-functioning we have to rid ourself of the conflict in between our very own self-image and what we think other people see in us.

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36 Carl Rogers Humanistic theory Our goal is to receive unconditional optimistic regard – having actually other civilization value friend for who your are as such you construct a confident self image and become fully-functioning. Every person has a self – her own photo that is acquired over the year by observing just how other people react to you. Each person strives for optimistic regard – seeing you yourself in a hopeful light as a an outcome of feedback obtained from communication with others. Periodically a optimistic regard is only reached by having problems of worth put upon you. (Conditions girlfriend must fulfill in order come be pertained to positively)

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37 Abraham Maslow Humanistic theory Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) emphasized the simple goodness of person nature. He likewise believed the people shot to end up being the finest that they can become – to fulfill their own distinct potential (self-actualization).

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38 qualities of Self-Actualized world They are realistically oriented They accept themselves, other people, and also the natural world for what they space They have a good deal the spontaneity They space problem-centered quite than self-centered. They have actually an waiting of detachment and also a require for privacy They room autonomous your appreciation the people and things is fresh, no stereotyped

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39 qualities of Self-Actualized people (continued) many have had profound mystical or spirituality experiences, although not necessarily spiritual in character They determine with mankind They have a few deep intimate relationships quite than countless superficial relationship They execute not confuse means with end They are an innovative and withstand conformity

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40 Maslow believed that to become self-actualized all human being must an initial satisfy different levels of demands that overcome our thoughts and behaviors. His power structure of requirements demonstrates the different levels.

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41 BEHAVIORISM theory Behaviorists think that as people differ in their discovering experiences, they acquire different actions and, hence, different personalities. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) studied exactly how Contingencies of combine (the occurrence of rewards or punishments following certain behaviors) shaped behavior and also therefore personality.

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42 society COGNITIVE THEORIES social Cognitive theorists think that personality is acquired by a combination of reinforcement and observational learning. Albert Bandura (1925 - )believed that people direct your own habits by their choice of models. (You are more likely come learn brand-new behaviors native friends of your own picking than indigenous friends her parents pick for you.)

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43 Bandura (continued) Bandura supported Reciprocal Determinism – the communication of the observer, the behavior of the individual gift observed, and also the environment in i m sorry the behavior occurs. The score of our behavior is self-efficacy – our own view of our capability to succeed - concerning any type of decision us make.

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If our outcome expectations room met we will make comparable decisions on future similar situations.

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44 which THEORY execute YOU think IS CORRECT? TRAIT theory – All human being possess all traits and also all traits have the right to be measure PSYCHOANALYTIC concept – Unconscious pressures motivate our behavior and personality is determined by early on childhood experience HUMANISM concept – human being are thrust toward self- actualization BEHAVIORISM and also SOCIAL COGNITIVE theory - civilization learn v the aftermath of your behavior and from function models

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