The urinary system is composed of the paired kidneys and ureters, the bladder, and also the urethra. This system’s primary role is come ensure optimal properties of the blood, i m sorry the kidneys consistently monitor. This general role of the kidneys entails a complex combination of renal functions:

Regulation that the balance between water and electrolytes (inorganic ions) and also the acid-base balance;

Excretion of metabolic wastes along with excess water and electrolytes in urine, the kidneys’ excretory product i m sorry passes v the ureters for temporary storage in the bladder prior to its release to the exterior by the urethra;

Excretion of numerous bioactive substances, including numerous drugs;

Secretion the renin, a protease important for regulation the blood push by cleaving turn around angiotensinogen come angiotensin I;

Secretion the erythropoietin, a glycoprotein expansion factor that stimulates erythrocyte production in red marrow once the blood O2 level is low;

Conversion the the steroid prohormone vitamin D, initially created in the skin, to the active form (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or calcitriol); and

Gluconeogenesis during starvation or durations of an extensive fasting, making glucose indigenous amino acids to supplement this process in the liver.

You are watching: The concave medial border of the kidney is called the __________.




Approximately 12-cm long, 6-cm wide, and 2.5-cm special in adults, each kidney has a concave medial border, the hilum—where nerves enter, the ureter exits, and blood and lymph vessels enter and also exit—and a convex lateral surface, both covered by a slim fibrous capsule (Figure 19–1). Within the hilum the upper finish of the ureter broadens as the renal pelvis and also divides into two or 3 major calyces. Smaller sized branches, the boy calyces, arise indigenous each significant calyx. The area bordering the renal pelvis and also calyces includes adipose tissue.

figure 19–1


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Each kidney is bean-shaped, with a concave hilum whereby the ureter and the renal artery and vein enter. The ureter divides and subdivides into several major and also minor calyces, approximately which is located the renal sinus include adipose tissue. Enclosed to every minor calyx is a renal pyramid, a conical an ar of medulla delimited by extensions of cortex. The cortex and hilum are covered with a fibrous capsule.


The parenchyma of each kidney has actually an external renal cortex, a darker stained region with countless round corpuscles and also tubule overcome sections, and an inside renal medulla consisting greatly of aligned direct tubules and also ducts (Figure 19–1). The renal medulla in humans consists of 8-15 conical structures called renal pyramids, all with their bases meeting the cortex (at the corticomedullary junction) and separated native each various other by extensions of the cortex dubbed renal columns. Each pyramid plus the cortical tissue at its base and also extending follow me its political parties constitutes a renal lobe. Parallel ducts and also tubules expanding from the medulla into the cortex consist of ...

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