social psychology
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the clinical study of just how we think about, influence, and relate come one another.

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attribution theoryexplains someone’s behavior by crediting one of two people the case or the person’s disposition.
fundamental attribution errorthe tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, come underestimate the influence of the situation and to evaluate the impact of personal disposition.
attitudefeelings, frequently influenced by ours beliefs, that predispose us to answers in a particular method to objects, people, and also events.
central course persuasionattitude adjust path in which interested world focus top top the arguments and respond through favorable thoughts.
peripheral course persuasionattitude readjust path in which world are affected by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness.
foot-in-the-door phenomenonthe tendency for human being who have an initial agreed come a tiny request come comply later on with a larger request.
rolea collection of expectation (norms) about a society position, defining how those in the place ought come behave.
cognitive dissonance theoryexplains that we act to minimize the uncomfortable (dissonance) us feel when two that our thoughts (cognitions) room inconsistent. Because that example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the result dissonance by changing our attitudes.
conformityadjusting one’s habits or reasoning to coincide v a team standard.
normative society influenceresults indigenous a person’s desire to get approval or avoid disapproval.
informational social influenceresults from one’s willingness to expropriate others’ opinions around reality.
social facilitationstronger responses on straightforward or well-learned jobs in the visibility of others.
social loafingthe tendency for people in a team to exert less effort when pooling their initiatives toward attaining a typical goal than once individually accountable.
deindividuationthe loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group instances that foster arousal and also anonymity.
group polarizationthe improvement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
groupthinkoccurs once the desire because that harmony in a decision-making group overrides a reality appraisal the alternatives.
culturethe enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions common by a group of people and also transmitted native one generation come the next.
norman taken rule because that accepted and also expected behavior; prescribe “proper” behavior.
personal spacethe buffer region we favor to maintain about our bodies.
prejudicean unjustifiable (and typically negative) mindset toward a group and its members; generally involves stereotyped beliefs, an unfavorable feelings, and also a predisposition to discriminatory action.
stereotypea generalized (sometimes accurate yet often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
discriminationunjustifiable negative behavior towards a group and its members.
ingroup“Us”—people through whom us share a typical identity.
outgroup"Them”—those viewed as various or except our very own group.
ingroup biasthe propensity to favor our very own group.
scapegoat theorythe theory that prejudice uses an outlet because that anger by offering someone come blame.
other-race effectthe propensity to recall faces of one’s very own race more accurately than encounters of other races. Additionally called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
just-world phenomenonthe propensity for civilization to think the people is fair and that people therefore get what castle deserve and deserve what lock get.
aggressionphysical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
frustration-aggression principlethe idea that aggravation—the blocking of an effort to attain some goal—creates anger, which deserve to generate hostility.
mere exposure effectthe phenomenon the repeated contact with novel stimuli increases liking that them.
passionate lovean aroused state of intense confident absorption in another, usually current at the start of a romantic relationship.
companionate lovethe deep affectionate attachment us feel because that those v whom our stays are intertwined.
equitya problem in which civilization receive from a relationship in proportion to what they provide to it.
self-disclosurerevealing intimate aspects of oneself come others.
altruismunselfish regard for the welfare that others.
bystander effectthe tendency for any kind of given passerby to be much less likely to give assist if rather passing by room present.
social exchange theorythe idea that our social behavior is an exchange process, the target of i m sorry is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
reciprocity norman expectation that world will help, no hurt, those who have helped them.
social-responsibility norman expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
conflicta viewed incompatibility that actions, goals, or ideas.
social trapa instance in i beg your pardon the conflict parties, by every rationally pursuing their self-interest, come to be caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mirror-image perceptionsmutual views often held by conflict people, as as soon as each side sees itself as ethical and also peaceful and also views the various other side as evil and also aggressive.
self-fulfilling prophecya belief that leader to its very own acheivement.
superordinate goalsshared purposes that override differences among people and also require their cooperation.

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GRITGraduated and also Reciprocated campaigns in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed come decrease international tensions.
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