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As at an early stage as September 1861, the CSA began issuing national currency, promising to pay the bearer the confront amount — 6 months after the ratification that a tranquility treaty.

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Within days of the fall of fort Sumter, four much more states join the Confederacy: Virginia, north Carolina, Tennessee, and also Arkansas. The fight lines were currently drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in nearly every way. Practically 21 million human being lived in 23 north states. The South claimed just 9 million civilization — including 3.5 million servants — in 11 confederate states. In spite of the North"s higher population, however, the South had actually an army virtually equal in size throughout the very first year of the war.

The North had actually an enormous industrial benefit as well. At the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had only one-ninth the commercial capacity that the Union. However that statistic was misleading. In 1860, the North manufactured 97 percent that the country"s firearms, 96 percent that its railroad locomotives, 94 percent the its cloth, 93 percent the its pig iron, and also over 90 percent that its boots and also shoes. The North had twice the density of railroads per square mile. There was not even one rifleworks in the whole South.


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The southern was in ~ a serious disadvantage once it pertained to manufacturing, however the Confederacy controlled to keep its firearms firing by producing ammunition from melted-down bells indigenous churches and also town squares.

All the the principal ingredients of gunpowder were imported. Due to the fact that the North regulated the navy, the seas were in the hands of the Union. A blockade can suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was no without resources and willpower.

The South can produce every the food it needed, though moving it come soldiers and civilians to be a significant problem. The South additionally had a great nucleus the trained officers. Seven of the eight army colleges in the nation were in the South.

The South also proved to be very resourceful. By the end of the war, it had created armories and also foundries in number of states. Castle built vast gunpowder mills and also melted down countless church and plantation bells because that bronze to construct cannon.

The South"s biggest strength place in the truth that it was fighting on the protective in its own territory. Familiar with the landscape, Southerners could harass north invaders.

The military and political goals of the Union were much more an overwhelming to accomplish. The Union had actually to invade, conquer, and occupy the South. It had actually to damage the South"s capacity and also will to withstand — a formidable challenge in any kind of war.


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"We had the poorest commissary arrangements, and all I might get because that my men was salt and also hard crackers. Ns made the convalescents shooting squirrels, ground hogs, pheasants, and also turkeys through which to make soup for the men." -from the memoirs that Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners took pleasure in the initial advantage of morale: The southern was fighting to maintain its way of life, conversely, the North to be fighting to keep a union. Slavery did not become a moral cause of the Union effort until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the war began, many vital questions were still unanswered. What if the slave claims of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware had joined the Confederacy? What if brother or France had pertained to the assist of the South? What if a couple of decisive beforehand Confederate victories had turned northern public opinion against the war?

Indeed, the phibìc looked much far better on paper. However many components undetermined at the outbreak that war can have tilted the balance sheet toward a various outcome.