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Cooper GM. The Cell: A molecular Approach. Second edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000.

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Modes the Cell-Cell Signaling

Most signaling molecules are secreted by one cell and also bind to receptors expressed by a target cell. Cell-cell signaling is split into three general categories (endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signaling) based upon the street over i m sorry signals room transmitted.

KEY TERMS:endocrine signaling, hormone, paracrine signaling, autocrine signaling

Steroid Hormones and the Steroid Receptor Superfamily

The steroid hormones, thyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and retinoic mountain are little hydrophobic molecules that diffuse across the plasma membrane of your target cells and also bind to intracellular receptors. Members the the steroid receptor superfamily duty as transcription determinants to straight regulate gene expression in response to ligand binding.

KEY TERMS: steroid hormone, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, corticosteroid, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, ecdysone, thyroid hormone, vitamin D3, retinoic acid, retinoid, steroid receptor superfamily

Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide

The simple gases nitric oxide and carbon monoxide are crucial paracrine signaling molecules in the nervous system and also other cabinet types.


Neurotransmitters are small hydrophilic molecules that lug signals in between neurons or between neurons and also other target cell at a synapse. Numerous neurotransmitters bind to ligand-gated ion channels.

KEY TERMS:neurotransmitter

Peptide Hormones and Growth Factors

The widest variety of signaling molecules in animals are peptides, ranging from just a few to more than a hundred amino acids. This group of molecules consists of peptide hormones, neuropeptides, and also growth factors.

KEY TERMS: peptide hormone, neuropeptide, enkephalin, endorphin, neurohormone, expansion factor, nerve development factor (NGF), neurotrophin, epidermal expansion factor (EGF), platelet-derived expansion factor (PDGF), cytokine, membrane-anchored development factor


The eicosanoids room a class of lipids that function in paracrine and also autocrine signaling.

KEY TERMS:eicosanoid, prostaglandin, prostacyclin, thromboxane, leukotriene

Plant Hormones

Small molecules recognized as plant hormones manage plant growth and development.

KEY TERMS: tree hormone, auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene

G Protein-Coupled Receptors

The largest household of cell surface receptors, including the receptor for plenty of hormones and also neurotransmitters, transmit signals to intracellular targets via the intermediary action of G proteins.

KEY TERMS: G protein, G protein-coupled receptor, heterotrimeric G protein

Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

The receptors for many growth components are protein-tyrosine kinases.

KEY TERMS:receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, autophosphorylation, SH2 domain

Cytokine Receptors and Nonreceptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

The receptor for many cytokines act in association v nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinases.

KEY TERMS: cytokine receptor superfamily, nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase, Src, Janus kinase (JAK)

Receptors linked to various other Enzymatic Activities

Other type of cell surface ar receptors include protein-tyrosine phosphatases, protein-serine/ threonine kinases, and guanylyl cyclases.

KEY TERMS:protein-tyrosine phosphatase, transforming expansion factor β (TGF-β), protein-serine/threonine kinase, guanylyl cyclase

The cAMP Pathway: 2nd Messengers and also Protein Phosphorylation

Cyclic AMP is an essential second messenger in the response of animal cells come a range of hormones and also odorants. Many actions of cAMP are mediated through protein kinase A, i m sorry phosphorylates both metabolic enzymes and the transcription aspect CREB.

KEY TERMS:intracellular signal transduction, cyclic AMP (cAMP), second messenger, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP phosphodiesterase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A), cAMP response element (CRE), CREB

Cyclic GMP

Cyclic GMP is also crucial second messenger in animal cells. That best-characterized duty is in intuitive reception in the vertebrate eye.

KEY TERMS: cyclic GMP (cGMP), rhodopsin, transducin, cGMP phosphodiesterase

Phospholipids and Ca2+

Phospholipids and Ca2+ are common 2nd messengers caused downstream of both G protein-coupled receptors and also protein-tyrosine kinases. Hydrolysis the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) yields diacylglycerol and also inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which activate protein kinase C and mobilize Ca2+ indigenous intracellular stores, respectively. Increased levels of cytosolic Ca2+ then activate a selection of target proteins, including Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. In electrically excitable cell of nerve and muscle, level of cytosolic Ca2+ are boosted by the opened of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and also ryanodine receptor in the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition to being cleaved into diacylglycerol and also IP3, PIP2 deserve to be phosphorylated to the distinct 2nd messenger PIP3.

KEY TERMS: phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phospholipase C, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), protein kinase C, phorbol ester, calmodulin, video camer kinase, ryanodine receptor, phosphatidylinositide (PI) 3-kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), Akt

Ras, Raf, and also the MAP Kinase Pathway

The MAP kinase pathway is a conserved chain of protein kinases set off downstream of a variety of extracellular signals. In animal cells, the best-characterized forms of MAP kinase are coupled to growth factor receptor by the little GTP-binding protein Ras, which initiates a protein kinase cascade resulting in MAP kinase (ERK) activation. ERK climate phosphorylates a selection of cytosolic and also nuclear proteins, consisting of transcription components that convey immediate-early gene induction.

KEY TERMS: MAP kinase, ERK, Ras, Raf, MEK, guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GTPase-activating protein, tiny GTP-binding protein, immediate-early gene, serum response element (SRE), serum an answer factor (SRF), Elk-1

The JAK/STAT Pathway

STAT proteins space transcription factors that save SH2 domains and also are activated straight by protein-tyrosine kinases associated with cytokine and growth variable receptors.

KEY TERMS: JAK/STAT pathway, STAT protein

Integrins and Signal Transduction

Binding of integrins come the extracellular procession stimulates the FAK nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase, leading to activation of MAP kinase and other downstream signaling pathways.


Regulation the the Actin Cytoskeleton

Growth determinants induce alterations in cabinet movement and cell shape by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton. These cytoskeletal alterations are mediated through members that the Rho subfamily of little GTP-binding proteins.

KEY TERMS: Rho, Rac, Cdc42

The Receptor Tyrosine Kinase/Ras/MAP Kinase Pathway in Drosophila and also C. Elegans

The function of the Ras/Raf/MAP kinase pathway in development has been elucidated by studies of the differentiation the photoreceptor neurons in Drosophila and also vulval induction in C. Elegans.

Hedgehog and Wingless

The Hedgehog and also Wingless signaling pathways play crucial roles in decision of cabinet fate and patterning during advancement of both invertebrate and also vertebrate embryos.

KEY TERMS: Hedgehog, Wingless

Notch Signaling

The Notch pathway controls cell fate by straight cell-cell interaction during animal development.


Caspases and also Apoptosis

Programmed cell death plays a key role both in the maintenance of adult tissues and embryonic development. In contrast to the accidental fatality of cell from one acute injury, programmed cell death takes ar by the active process of apoptosis. Gene responsible because that the regulation and execution that apoptosis space conserved from C. Elegans to humans. These materials of the cell death machinery encompass a household of proteases (caspases) that room the effectors of apoptosis as well as proteins that regulate caspase activation.

KEY TERMS:programmed cabinet death, apoptosis, caspase, Bcl-2

Cell death Receptors and Caspase Activation

Some secreted polypeptides induce programmed cell death by activating receptors that are directly attached to caspases.

KEY TERMS: tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

Signaling cell Survival

Many cells space dependent on survive signals indigenous secreted factors or cell-cell contacts that suppress apoptosis. The PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway is a major signaling pathway responsible for promoting cell survival.

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