tough,fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
compact bonedense hard and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones. aka cortical bone
spongy bonelighter and not as strong as compact bone. aka cancellous bone
medullary cavitycentral cavity located in the shaft of long bones where it surrounded by compact bones. red & YELLOW BONE MARROW ARE STORED
endosteumtissue that lines the medullary cavity
red bone marrowlocated within the spongy bone,manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin,white blood cells and thrombocytes
hemopoieticpertaining to the formation of blood cells
yellow bone marrowfunctions as fat storage
cartilagesmooth rubbery blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between ones.

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also make up flexible parts of the skeleton
articular cartilagecovers the surface of the bones where they come together to form joints
meniscuscurved fibrous cartilage found in some joints such as the knee
diaphysisshaft of a long bone
epiphyseswider ends of the long bones
foramenopening in the bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
processnormal projection on the surface of a bone that most commonly serves as an attachment for a muscle/tendon
jointsaka articulations, place of union between 2 or more bones
fibrous jointsconsisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue
fontanellesaka soft spot are normally present in the skull of a newborn
cartilaginous jointsallow only slight movement & consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage
pubic symphysisallows some movement to facilitate childbirth
synovial jointcreated where 2 bones articulate to permit a variety of motions
ball & socket jointssuch as hips, allow a wide range of movement in many directions
hinge jointsknees & elbows are synovial joints that allow movement in only 1 direction
synovial capsuleoutermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint
synovial membranelines the capsule & secretes synovial fluid
synvoial fluidflows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make smooth movement of the joint possible
ligamentsbands of fibrous tissue that forms joints by connecting one bone to another bone or by joining a bone to cartilage
bursafibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction
axial skeletonprotects the organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems
appendicular skeletonmakes body movement possible
craniumportion of the skull that encloses & protects the brain
suturesjagged fibrous joints that join the cranial bones together
frontal boneanterior portion of the cranium that forms the forehead
parietal bones2 of the largest bones of the skull. they form most of the roof & upper sides of the cranium
occipital boneforms the back part of the skull & the base of the cranium
external auditory meatusthe opening of the external auditory canal of the outer ear
sphenoid boneirregular, wedge shaped bone at the base of the skull
ethmoid bonelight spongy bone located at the roof and sides of the nose
auditory ossicles3 tiny bones located in each middle ear
nasal bonesupper part of the bridge of the nose
zygomatic bonesaka cheekbones
maxillary bonesform most of the upper jaw
palatine bonesform the anterior(front) part of the hard palate of the mouth & floor of the nose
lacrimal bonesmake up part of the orbit(socket of the eye) at the inner angle
inferior conchaethin scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose
vomer boneforms the base of the nasal septum
mandibleaka jawbone, is the only movable bone in the skull
thoracic cavityaka rib cage, bony structure that protects the heart & lungs
ribsaka costals attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
sternumaka breast bone flat dagger shaped bone located in the middle of the chest
manubriumbony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
body of the sternumbony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum
xiphoid processstructure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
pectoral girdlethe shoulders which support the arms & hands
clavicleaka collar bone, is a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula
scapulaaka shoulder blade
acromionextension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
humerusbone of the upper arm
radiussmaller shorter bone in the forearm,runs up the thumb side of the forearm
ulnalarger,longer bone of the forearm
olecranon processaka funny bone, is a large projection on the upper end of the ulna
carpalsbones that form the wrist
metacarpals5 bones that form the palm of the hand
phalangesare the 14 bones of the fingers * bones of the toes as well
spinal columnaka vertebral column protects the spinal cord & supports the head and body
vertebrae26 in the spinal column
laminaposterior portion of the vertebrae
intervertebral disksmade of cartilage,separate & cushion the vertebrae from each other
cervical vertebraefirst set of 7 vertebrae and they form the neck
thoracic vertebraeknown as T1 & T12, are the second set of 12 vertebrae
lumbar vertebraeknown as L1-L5, make up the third set of 5 vertebrae & together form the inward curve of the lower spine
sacrumslightly curved triangular shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back
coccyxaka tailbone forms the end of the spine & is actually made of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together
pelvic girdleprotectsinternal organs and supports the lower extremities
iliumbroad blade shaped bone that forms the back & sides of the pubic bone
sacroiliacthe slightly movable articulation between the sacrum & posterior portion of the ilium
ischiumforms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting
pubisforms the anterior portion ofthe pubic bone, located just below the urinary bladder
pubic symphysiscartilaginous joint that unites the left & right pubic bones
acetabulumaka hip sockets, large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates w/ the head of the femur to form the hip joint
femurslargest bones in the body
patellaaka knee cap, bonyanterior portion of the knee
poplitealposterior space behind the knee where the ligaments,vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located
cruciate ligamentsmake possible the movement of the knee
tibiaaka shin bone is the larger anterior weight bearing bone in the lower leg
fibulathe smaller of the two bones in the lower leg
anklesthe joints that connect the lower leg & foot, make the necessary movements possible
tarsalthe 7 short bones of the ankle similar to the bones of the wrist,
malleolusrounded bony projection on the tibia & fibula on the sides of each ankle joint
talusthe ankle bone that articulates w/ the tibia & fibula
calcaneusaka heel bone, llargest of the tarsal bones
metatarsals5 bones that form the part of the foot where the toes are attached
phalangesbones of the toe, also the fingers
chiropractorholds a dr of chiropractic degree & specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders orginating from misalignment of the spine
orthopedic surgeonphysician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders involving bones, joints and muscles
osteopathholds a dr of osteopathy degree & uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation
podiatristdr of podiatry degree & specializes in diagnosing & treating disorders of the foot
rheumatologistphysician who specializes in diagnosis & treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis
ankylosisloss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure
arthrosclerosisstiffness of the joints
bursitisinflammation of a bursa
chondromalaciaabnormal softening of cartilage
chondromaslow growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells
costochondritisinflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
hallux valgusaka bunion, an abnormal enlargemetn of the joint at the base of the great toe
hemarthrosisblood within a joint
polymyalgia rheumaticageriatric inflammatory disorder of the muscles & joints characterized by pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulders, upper arms, hips and thighs
synovitisinflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling & pain of the affected joint
dislocationtotal displacement of a bone from its joint
subluxationpartial displacement of a bone from its joint
arthritisinflammatory condition of one or more joint
osteoarthritismost commonly associated w/ aging
osteophytesbone spurs
spondylosisaka spinal osteoarthritis, degenerative disorder can cause the loss of normal spinal structure & function
gouty arthritisaka gout, type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uricacid in the joints
rheumatoid arthritisaka RA, chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints & some organs of other body systems are attacked
ankylosing spondylitisform of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
juvenile rheumatoid arthritisautoimmune disorder that affects children ages 16 yrs or less
herniated diskaka slipped/ruptured disk breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
lumbagopain in the lumbar region
spondylolisthesisis the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it
spina bifidacongenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
kyphosisan abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side
lordosisabnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine
scoliosislateral curvature of the spine
craniostenosismalformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures
fibrous dysplasiabone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure & replaces it with fibrous tissue
ostealgiapain in the bone
osteitisinflammation of the bone
osteomalaciaaka adult rickets, abnormal softening of bones in adults
osteomyelitisinflammation of the bone marrow & adjacent bone
osteonecrosisdeath of bone tissue due to insufficient blood supply
paget's diseasebone disease of unknown cause
periostitisinflammation of the periosteum
ricketsdeficiency disease occurring in children,results from a vit D deficiency
short staturecondition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length compared to the size of the head & trunk
talipesaka clubfoot describes any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus(ankle bones)
primary bone cancerrelatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone
secondary bone cancerdescribes tumors that have metastasized to bones from other organs
myelomacancer that occurs in blood making cells found in red bone marrow
osteochondromaa benign bony projection covered with cartilage
osteoporosismarked loss of bone density & an increase in bone porosity that if frequently associated with aging
osteopeniathinner then average bone density
compression fractureoccurs when the bone is pressed together on itself
colles fractureaka fractured wrist
osteoporotic hip fractureaka broken hip usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis
fracturea broken bone
closed fracturebroken bone but there is no open wound
open fracturebroken bone and an open skin wound
comminuted fracturebone is splintered or crushed
greenstick fracturewhere the bone is bent & only partially broken, occurs primarily in children
pathologic fractureoccurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain
spiral fracturefracture where the bone has been twisted apart
stress fracturewhich is an overuse injury is a small crack in a bone that often develops from chronic excessive impact
transverse fractureoccurs straight across the bone
fat embolusform when a long bone is fractured & fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood
crepitationgrating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together
callusforms as a bulging deposit around the area of the break
radiographaka x ray, used to visualize bone fractures & other abnormalities
arthroscopyvisual examination of the internal structure of a joint
bone marrow biopsydiagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test
magnetic resonance imagingused to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints
bone density testingused to determine losses or changes in bone density
ultrasonic bone density testingscreening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass
dual x ray absorptiometrylow exposure radiographic measurement of the spine & hips to measure bone density
bone marrow transplantused to treat certain types of cancer
allogenic bone marrow transplantuses healthy bones marrow cells from a compatible donor
autologous bone marrow transplantpatient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleansed,treated, and stored
orthoticmechanical appliance such as a leg brace that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
prosthesissubstitute for a diseased or missing body part
arthrodesissurgical fusion of 2 bones to stiffen a joint
artholysissurgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
arthroscopic surgeryminimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint
chondroplastysurgical repair of damaged cartilage
synovectomysurgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
viscosupplementationsinjections used to add preparation of hyaluronic acid & related compounds to a joint, easing friction
arthroplastysurgical repair of a damaged joint
percutaneous diskectomyperformed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk
percutaneous vertebroplastyperformed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures
laminectomysurgical removal of a lamina or posterior portion of a vertebra
spinal fusiontechnique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together two or more vertebraecraniectomy
craniectomysurgical removal of a portion of the skull
craniotomysurgical incision or opening into the skull
cranioplastysurgical repair of the skull
osteoclasissurgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
ostectomysurgical removal of a bone
osteoplastysurgical repair of a bone or bones
osteorrhaphysurgical suturing or wiring together of bones
osteotomysurgical cutting of a bone
periosteotomyan incision through the periosteum to the bone
closed reductionattempted realignment of a bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation
immobilizationact of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast
tractiona pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
external fixationfracture treatment where pins are placed through the soft tissue & bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place
internal fixationplate or pins are are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces together