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inventories(Reading 29)

Exercise Problems:

1. Company kind of X supplies FIFO for its inventory valuation and also Company type of Y provides LIFO under U.S.GAAP, all other respects are the same. If the prices are climbing, Company kind of X is a lot of most likely to have a higher:

A. Tax liability

B. Inventory turnover


Ans: A

When prices are rising:




Ending inventories

Higher-the inventory reflects the prices of the many recently purchased items

Lower-the inventory mirrors the prices of items purchased at lower prices

Shareholders’ equity

Higher-earning and inventories are usually higher

Lower- earning and inventories are typically greater


Higher-cost of items sold is based upon formerly purchased, lower-priced items

Lower- price of products marketed is based upon most recently purchased, higher-priced items

Pretaxation cash circulation

Same- pretaxes cash circulation is not affected by the inventory approach offered

Same- pretax cash flow is not affected by the inventory technique provided

After-taxes cash flow

Lower- pretaxation cash flow is the same, but the revenue and also income taxes are greater

Higher- pretaxation cash circulation is the same, yet the revenue and revenue taxes are rnaipublishers.comced

Profit margins

Higher-earnings are better

Lower- income are lower

Inventory (asset) turnover

Lower- inventories are commonly greater

Higher- inventories are commonly rnaipublishers.comced

Current ratio

Higher- inventories are generally better

Lower- inventories are usually lower

Debt-to-equity ratio

Lower-net worth is commonly greater

Lower- net worth is usually rnaipublishers.comced

Rerotate on ascollection and return on equity

Higher-income are better

Lower- revenue are rnaipublishers.comced

FIFO: The price of the first item purchased is the price of the initially item offered. Ending inventory is based on the cost of the many recent purchases, thereby approximating existing price.

LIFO: The cost of the last item purchased is the price of the first item sold. Ending inventory is based upon the cost of the earliest items purchased.

So when prices are climbing, FIFO results in a lower COGS. FIFO also results in lower inventory turnover (because of lower COGS and greater inventory balances), a greater tax licapability (because of a higher pretaxation income) and also a rnaipublishers.comced CFO (because of the greater tax payments).

B. Company type of X supplies FIFO so its inventory turnover have to be lower due to lower COGS and better inventory balances.

C. Company kind of X supplies FIFO so its CFO need to be rnaipublishers.comced because of the greater tax payments.

2. Under U.s.GAAP, a LIFO liquidation occurs as soon as the:

A. LIFO reserve worth boosts.

B. Firm transforms from LIFO to FIFO

C. Quantity of items offered is better than the quantity developed.

Ans: C

Under U.S.GAAP, a LIFO inventory liquidation occurs once even more commodities are sold than are purchased or developed, causing the firm to dip into older, lee expensive inventory.

B. Changing from LIFO to FIFO is made retrospectively. Under U.S.GAAP, the firm have to explain why the readjust in cost circulation technique is preferable. But this adjust is not LIFO inventory liquidation.

3. A company presently provides LIFO inventory valuation under U.S.GAAP. The company reported a rise in the LIFO reserve for the year. If the company used FIFO rather than LIFO:

A. COGS is rnaipublishers.comced and net revenue is lower.

B. CFGO is rnaipublishers.comced and net earnings is greater.

C. COGS is higher and net income is lower.

Ans. B.

Under U.S.GAAP, a LIFO reserve rise suggests that the prices were raising and the distinction in inventory expense utilizing LIFO and also FIFO valuation approaches enhanced over the period. Throughout durations of rising prices, LIFO documents a greater COGS than FIFO bereason the LIFO method provides the newer, more expensive inventory for COGS. If COGS are higher, net earnings will be lower. If the firm offered FIFO quite than LIFO, the effects will be reversed. Therefore, COGS will be rnaipublishers.comced and the net income will certainly be better.

4. Assuming flat year-over-year sales in a declining price environment under U.S.GAAP, a firm can mean cash flow from operations (CFO) and working capital (WC) under the LIFO (quite than FIFO) inventory strategy to be:

A. Lower for both CFO and WC.

B. Lower for CFO and higher for WC.

C. Higher for CFO and lower for WC.

Ans. B.

Under U.S.GAAP, in a declining price atmosphere, LIFO results in a rnaipublishers.comced COGS, a greater gross profit margin, and better taxable earnings. Higher taxable earnings outcomes in better tax outflows and rnaipublishers.comced after-taxes cash flows from operations (CFO). In the declining price setting, inventory balances and also functioning funding reflect the greater price of the previously, lower priced inventory.

5. Which of the following inventory valuation methods ideal matches the actual historical cost of the inventory items to their physical flow?



C. Specific identification.

Ans. C.

Specific identification best matches the physical flow of the inventory items bereason it tracks the actual units that are sold.

6. The complying with indevelopment is easily accessible about a manufacturing company:

$ million

Cost of ending inventory computed making use of FIFO


Net realizable worth


Current replacement cost


If the firm is utilizing Internationwide Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), instead of UNITED STATE GAAP, its price of products sold ($ millions) is the majority of likely:

A. the very same.

B. 0.3 lower.

C. 0.3 higher.

Ans: A.

Under IFRS, the inventory would certainly be composed down to its net realizable worth ($4.1 million), whereas under UNITED STATE GAAP, industry is characterized as current replacement price and therefore would certainly be composed down to its present replacement price ($3.8 million). The smaller sized write dvery own under IFRS will certainly alleviate the amount charged to the expense of items offered, as compared through UNITED STATE GAAP, and also bring about a rnaipublishers.comced cost of items marketed of $0.3 million.

7. For which of the following assets is it the majority of correct to test for handicap at leastern annually?

A. Land also.

B. A patent through a legal life of twenty years.

C. A trademark via an intended indefinite life.

Ans: C.

Intangible assets via indefinite resides need to be tested for impairment at least each year.

B and also C are incorrect. PP&E (consisting of land) and intangibles through finite stays are just tested if tbelow has been a significant adjust or various other indication of disability.

8. A company’s indevelopment from its first year of procnaipublishers.comre is as follows:





Opening inventory



Purchase #1



Acquisition #2



Acquisition #3






Using a routine inventory mechanism and the weighted average method, the finishing inventory worth is closest to:

A. $11,975.

B. $12,165.

C. $12,700.

Ans: A.

Ending Inventory Weighted Median Calculations



Total NZ$

Purchase #1




Acquisition #2




Acquisition #3




Total obtainable



Median cost

52,700 ÷ 2,200

$ 23.95

Ending inventory

2,200 – 1,700 = 500 systems

$ 11,975

9. A agency incurs the followings expenses regarded its inventory throughout the year:


¥ millions

Acquisition price


Trade discounts


Import duties


Shipping of raw products to manufacturing facility


Manufacturing conversion expenses


Abnormal expenses as an outcome of waste product


Storage price before shipping to customers


The amount charged to inventory price (in millions) is closest to:

A. ¥175,000.

B. ¥177,000.

C. ¥185,000.

Ans: A.

The prices to encompass in inventories are all costs of purchase, prices of convariation, and also various other expenses incurred in bringing the inventories to their current place and condition.


¥ millions

Acquisition price


Less Trade discounts


Import duties


Shipping of raw products to production facility


Manufacturing conversion costs


Total inventory expenses


10. Compared through using the FIFO strategy to account for inventory, during a period of increasing prices, which of the adhering to ratios is most likely better for a agency using LIFO?

A. Current ratio

B. Gross margin

C. Inventory turnover

Ans: C.

During a period of climbing prices, finishing inventory under LIFO will certainly be rnaipublishers.comced than that of FIFO and also price of goods sold higher; therefore, inventory turnover (CGS/average inventory) will certainly be better.

Reference: question No. 1.

11. A company which prepares its financial statements making use of IFRS created dvery own its inventory worth by €20,000 in 2009. In 2010, prices increased and the exact same inventory was worth €30,000 more than its worth at the finish of 2009. Which of the complying with statements is many accurate? In 2010, the company’s expense of sales:

A. was unaffected.

B. lessened by €20,000.

C. lessened by €30,000.

Ans: B.

Under IFRS, inventory is reported on the balance sheet at the rnaipublishers.comced expense or net realizable worth. Net realizable worth is equal to the expected sales price less the estimated marketing expenses and completion costs. If net realizable value is much less than the balance sheet value f inventory, the inventory is “write down” to net realizable value and also the loss is known in the income statement. Is there is a subsequent recoexceptionally in worth, the inventory have the right to be “compose up” and the get is recognized in the earnings statement by rnaipublishers.comcing COGS by the amount of the recovery. Due to the fact that inventory is valued at the rnaipublishers.comced of price or net realizable value, inventory cannot be composed up by even more than it was previously written down.

In this question, the recovery of previous write-down is limited to the amount of the original write-down (€20,000) and is reported as a decrease in the price of sales.

12. A UNITED STATE pulp brokerage firm which prepares its financial statements according to UNITED STATE GAAP and also uses a routine inventory device had the complying with transactions in the time of the year:





$ per Ton

Beginning inventory



















The expense of sales (in ‘000s) is closest to:

A. $3,850 using FIFO.

B. $4,080 utilizing LIFO.

C. $5,890 making use of weighted average.

Ans: A.


Weighted Average



Available for sale



Cost $

Total price

($ 000s)

Units offered

Total price

($ 000s)

Units offered

Total expense

($ 000s)




1 x 600


3 x 680





5 x 650


3 x 650








Cost of sales


Cost of sales


Unit Cost

$5,890/9 = $654.44

Cost of sale WA

$654.44 x 6 = $3,926

13. A review of a company’s inventory records for the year shows that the adhering to costs were incurred:

Fixed manufacturing overhead: $500,000

Direct material and also straight labor: 300,000

Storage prices incurred in the time of production: 25,000

Abnormal waste costs: 30,000

If the agency operated at full capacity during the year, the total capitalized inventory expense is closest to:

A. $800,000.

B. $825,000.

C. $855,000.

Ans: B.

The complete capitalized costs encompass addressed manufacturing prices, the direct convariation costs of product and labor, storage expenses compelled as component of production but not abnormal waste expenses. $500,000 + 300,000 + 25,000 = $825,000.

14. In a period of climbing prices, when compared to a agency that supplies weighted average expense for inventory, a company using FIFO will a lot of most likely report greater worths for its:

A. return on sales.

B. debt-to-equity ratio.

C. inventory turnover.

Ans: A.

In periods of increasing prices FIFO results in a higher inventory value and a lower expense of products marketed and therefore a higher net revenue. The higher net earnings boosts return on sales.

B is incorrect. The higher reported net income also rises kept earnings, and therefore results in a lower debt-to-equity proportion not a greater one.

C is incorrect. The combination of greater inventory and also rnaipublishers.comced price of goods offered decreases inventory turnover (CGS/inventory).

15. A company, which prepares its financial statements in accordance via IFRS is in the process of occurring an extra reliable production procnaipublishers.comre for one of its main commodities. The many proper accounting treatment for those prices incurred in the task is to:

A. cost them as incurred.

B. capitalize prices straight regarded the development.

C. price expenses till technical feasibility has actually been established.

Ans: C.

Under IFRS research study and development prices are expensed till specific criteria are met, consisting of that technological feasibility has been establiburned and the firm intends to use it.

16. Due to international oversupply in the micro-chip market a firm composed down its 2012 inventory by €4.0 million from €12.0 million. The adhering to year, as a result of a adjust in competitive forces in the industry the market price of these chips climbed sharply to 10% over their original 2012 value. If the company prepares its financial statements in accordance through International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), its 2013 inventory (in €-millions) will many most likely be reported as:

A. 8.0.

B. 12.0.

C. 13.2.

Ans: B.

Although IFRS does call for write-downs, it likewise allows revaluations, yet not to exceed the original worth, i.e., 12. The exemption to this, wright here gains are permitted, is in producers of agricultural, woodland and also reresource commodities.

17. During the previous year, a company’s production facility was operating at 75% of capacity. The firm’s costs were as follows:

$ millions

Fixed manufacturing overhead expenses


Raw products prices


Labor prices


Freight-in expenses for raw products


Warehousing costs for finimelted items


The firm finished the year through no remaining work-in-process inventory. The total capitalized inventory expense (in $ millions) for the year is closest to:

A. 13.25.

B. 15.25.

C. 16.00.

Ans: A.

$ millions

Fixed Production Costs: 75% of capacity: 75% x $3


Raw products


Labor Costs


Freight In


Total Capitalized Inventory Cost


18. Is the reversal of an inventory write-dvery own allowed under U.S. GAAP (primarily accepted audit principles) and also Internationwide Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)?

A. No, under both

B. Yes, under both

C. Yes under IFRS yet not under U.S. GAAP

Ans: C.

The reversal of an inventory write-dvery own is permitted under IFRS but not under UNITED STATE GAAP.

Under IFRS, inventory is reported on the balance sheet at the lower price or net realizable value. Net realizable worth is equal to the expected sales price much less the estimated selling prices and also completion prices. If net realizable value is much less than the balance sheet value f inventory, the inventory is “compose down” to net realizable value and the loss is well-known in the income statement. Is tbelow is a subsequent recoextremely in value, the inventory have the right to be “create up” and also the get is known in the revenue statement by rnaipublishers.comcing COGS by the amount of the recoincredibly. Since inventory is valued at the lower of expense or net realizable value, inventory cannot be created up by even more than it was previously composed dvery own.

19. A retail firm prepares its financial statements in accordance via UNITED STATE GAAP (mainly welcomed accounting principles). Its purchases and sales of inventory for its initially 2 years of operations are noted below.

First Year

Second Year

Units Purchased



Unit Cost



Units Sold



Unit Selling Price



In its second year of procnaipublishers.comre, the company’s finishing inventory is $348,003. Which of the following inventory cost circulation presumptions is the company was most likely using?



C. Weighted average price

Ans: C.

The agency is accounting for its inventory using the weighted average expense method.

In the 2nd year of operations, under Weighted Median Cost:

Units available for sale encompass finishing inventory from year 1 plus purchases for year 2:

7,000 + 100,000 = 107,000

Cost of Goods Available for Sale: 7,000 x $8.43 + 100,000 x $12.25 = $1,284,000

Unit Cost: $1,284,000/107,000 = $12.00

End Inventory = 107,000 –78,000 = 29,000 systems. $12.00 x 19,000 = $348,003

20. An analyst gathers the following information about a agency ($ millions):






Year-finish inventory (LIFO inventory method)



LIFO reserve



Cost of goods sold (LIFO)



If the company offers the FIFO inventory technique rather of LIFO, the company’s 2012 gross profit margin is closest to:

A. 22.9%.

B. 29.8%.

C. 33.2%.

Ans: C.

Change in LIFO Reserve

36.4 - 21.8 = 14.6


COGS (LIFO) – Change in LIFO Reserve

203.9 – 14.6 = 189.3.

Gross profit (FIFO)

Sales – COGS (FIFO)

283.5 – 189.3 = 94.2

Gross Profit Margin (FIFO)

Gross Profit / Sales

94.2 / 283.5 = 33.23%.

21. A agency supplies the LIFO inventory method, yet a lot of of the various other service providers in the same market usage FIFO. Which of the adhering to ideal defines among the adjustments that would be made to the company’s financial statements to compare it via other carriers in the industry? The amount reported for the company’s ending inventory need to be:

A. raised by the ending balance in its LIFO reserve.

B. decreased by the ending balance in its LIFO reserve.

C. boosted by the change in its LIFO reserve for that period.

Ans: A.

LIFO Reserve = FIFO Inventory – LIFO Inventory

Adding the ending balance in the LIFO reserve to the LIFO inventory would equal the ending balance for inventory on a FIFO basis.

22. A firm making use of the LIFO inventory technique reports a LIFO reserve at year-finish of $85,000, which is $20,000 rnaipublishers.comced than the prior year. If the firm had actually supplied FIFO instead of LIFO in that year, the company’s financial statements would have actually reported:

A. a lower price of goods sold, yet a higher inventory balance.

B. a higher price of goods marketed, however a rnaipublishers.comced inventory balance.

C. both a higher expense of items offered and also a higher inventory balance.

Ans: C.

The negative readjust in the LIFO reserve would rise the expense of products offered under FIFO compared to LIFO.

FIFO COGS = LIFO COGS – Change in LIFO reserve.

The LIFO reserve has a positive balance so that FIFO inventory would be better than LIFO inventory.

FIFO inventory = LIFO inventory + LIFO reserve.

23. The year-end balances in a company’s LIFO reserve are $56.8 million in the company’s financial statements for both 2007 and 2008. For 2008, the measure that will the majority of likely be the exact same regardless of whether the firm uses the LIFO or FIFO inventory technique is the:

A. inventory turnover.

B. gross profit margin.

C. amount of working funding.

Ans: B.

The LIFO reserve did not readjust from 2007 to 2008. Without a readjust in the LIFO reserve, cost of items sold would be the same under both techniques. Sales are constantly the exact same for both; so gross profit margin would be the very same in 2008.

A is incorrect. The FIFO inventory would be greater because the LIFO inventory and LIFO reserve are included to compute FIFO inventory.

FIFO inventory = LIFO inventory + LIFO reserve

Because the inventory balances would certainly be various under FIFO, inventory turnover (COGS/ Ave. inventory) would certainly likewise be various under FIFO.

C is incorrect.

Working capital= CA-CL

Since the FIFO inventory would certainly be greater, the amount of working capital under FIFO would also be higher.

24. Which inventory strategy ideal matches the actual historic price of the inventory sold with their physical circulation if a firm is making use of a perpetual inventory system?



C. certain identification.

Ans: C.

Specific identification matches the actual historic expenses of the specific inventory items to their physical flow: the cost remain in inventory till the actual identifiable inventory is marketed.

25. An analyst gathered the following indevelopment about a company that uses the LIFO method:



Marginal taxes price


If the agency had actually provided the FIFO approach rather of LIFO, the company’s 2012 net earnings would certainly the majority of most likely have actually been:

A. $21,000lower

B. $9,000 rnaipublishers.comced

C. $21,000better

Ans: C.

The LIFO reverse increased by $30,000 (=450,000-420,000). If a rise in the LIFO reserve occurs, LIFO COGS will certainly be greater than FIFO by the amount of the rise.

FIFO COGS = LIFO COGS – Change in LIFO reserve

Net earnings would certainly be lower than FIFO by $30,000(1-0.30)=$21,000. After-taxation FIFO net earnings would be $21,000 better.

26. Greene Corporation supplies the LIFO inventory approach, however a lot of of other companies in Greene’s market usage FIFO. Which of the complying with finest describe one of the adjustments that would be made to Greene’s financial statements to compare that agency with other service providers in the industry? To change Greene’s inventory to the FIFO technique, the amount reported for Greene’s finishing inventory must be:

A. boost by the ending balance in Greene’s LIFO reserve.

B. decrease by the finishing balance in Greene’s LIFO reserve.

C. rise by the readjust in Greene’s LIFO reserve for that period.


Adding the finishing balance in the LIFO reserve to the FIFO inventory would equal the finishing balance for inventory on a FIFO basis.

(LIFO Reserve = FIFO Inventory – LIFO Inventory )

27. First-In Limited (FIL), which reports under IFRS, known revenue of $2.2 million during the the majority of current fiscal year on unit sales of 152. The agency had beginning inventory of 27 systems (16 systems at a price of $7,500 each ad 11 units at a cost of $8,100) and obtained 164 unites throughout the year (the purchases are noted in chronological order below). The per unit net realizable worth (NRV) of the inventory was $9,300, while the replacement expense and NRV less the normal profit margin were $9,100.


Unit cost

31 devices


25 units


76 units


32 systems


Assuming that FIL supplies the FIFO method for inventory costing, the amount of inventory that will certainly be reported on the company’s balance sheet at fiscal year-end is closest to:

A. $354,900.

B. $362,700

C. $370,000.

Ans: B.

The first step in fixing this question is to calculate the finishing inventory under FIFO.

Ending inventory = start inventory + purchase – sales


=39 systems

FIFO inventory = (32 devices x $9,600) + (7 units x $9,000)

= $370,200

Note that under IFRS, inventory is calculated at the rnaipublishers.comced of expense or net realizable value (NRV). In this trouble, the NRV per unit is $9,300, so the total net realizable of the inventory is:

Net realizable worth = NRV per unit x ending inventory

= $9,300 x 39 devices


The net realizable value of $362,700 is much less than the FIFO price of $370,200, so the inventory will certainly be reported at $362,700.

A is incorrect. This is the amount that would certainly be reported as inventory under U.S.GAAP. Under U.S.GAAP, inventory is valued at the lower of cost or sector, wbelow “market” is based upon the median value among the NRV, replacement cost, and NRV less a normal profit margin. In this trouble, the replacement cost and also NRV much less a profit margin of $9,100 are much less than the NRV “ceiling” of $9,300, so the market value of the inventory is:

Market value = replacement cost x finishing inventory

= $9,100 x 39 units= $354,900

The industry value of $354,900 would certainly be reported on the balance sheet bereason it is less than the FIFO expense of $370,200.

C is incorrect. The finishing inventory balance making use of FIFO is $370,200. However, the NRV of the staying 39 devices need to be reported on the balance sheet under IFRS, as it is rnaipublishers.comced than the FIFO cost.

28. Which of the complying with would be the a lot of advantageous ratio from a financial evaluation perspective, rather than from an audit perspective, assuming a rising price environment?

A. Calculating the current ratio by making use of the current assets established through LIFO.

B. Determining the inventory turnover by utilizing expense of items sold ready on a FIFO basis and average inventory prepared on a LIFO basis.

C. Determining the return on assets by utilizing net earnings all set on a LIFO basis and also average full assets ready on a FIFO basis.

Ans: C.

In a rising setting, the a lot of valuable proportion from a financial evaluation perspective would certainly be to calculate the return on assets by utilizing the rnaipublishers.comced more conservative net revenue prepared on a LIFO basis and average assets (inventory) prepared on a FIFO basis (to include more present expense data in the inventory).

A is incorrect. Calculating the existing proportion via present assets determined through FIFO, not LIFO, would be a lot of useful to a financial analyst.

B is incorrect. The finest measure to acquire an adjustment inventory turnover proportion would be to usage expense of products sold ready on a LIFO basis and average inventory prepared on a FIFO basis (highest possible inventory). This alternative is reversed.

29. Select indevelopment from a agency that uses FIFO inventory method is offered listed below.




Total ($)

Opening inventory




















Ending inventory


If the firm provides the perpetual inventory device versus the regular inventory mechanism, the gross margin would the majority of most likely be:

A. Lower.

B. Higher.

C The very same.

Ans: C.

When using the FIFO inventory method the ending inventory, the price of items marketed and the gross margin are the very same under either the perpetual or regular methods.

30. An analyst have the right to a lot of accurately recognize a LIFO liquidation by observing a(n):

A. rise in gross margin.

B. decrease in the LIFO reserve.

C. readjust in inventory out of line with adjust in sales.

Ans: B.

The the majority of correct way to recognize a LIFO liquidation is by reviewing the inventory footnotes for a decrease in the LIFO reserve.

A and also C are incorrect. Although a LIFO liquidation may cause a rise in gross margin or transforms in inventory out of line with alters in sales, tright here are various other determinants that can describe those alters.

31. During a duration of decreasing prices, a company making use of LIFO inventory strategy instead of FIFO will many likely report:

A. rnaipublishers.comced existing assets and higher gross revenue.

B. higher current assets and also rnaipublishers.comced gross revenue.

C. higher existing assets and also greater gross earnings.

Ans: C.

If prices were declining, making use of LIFO would match the rnaipublishers.comced (many recent) costs with current sales. Costs of products sold would be lower via LIFO and also gross profit (income) would certainly be better compared to utilizing FIFO. Lower price of items sold indicates inventory balances, consisting of older higher priced items, would certainly be greater making use of LIFO, raising existing assets loved one to FIFO.

Reference: question 1.

32. An adjustment to operating revenue for the results of a change in LIFO reserve will the majority of most likely be required if the readjust in the LIFO reserve is the result of:

A. price declines.

B. a decrease in the variety of unites organized in inventory.

C. a increase in the number of unites hosted in inventory.

Ans: C.

A liquidation of LIFO inventory produces unsustainable profit margins bereason old prices are being matched via existing earnings.

33. All else, will certainly a company’s implementation of the accounting traditional (SFAS 143) concerned ascollection retirement duties incurred bereason of ecological a lot of likely:

A. increase return on assets yet decrease net earnings.

B. decrease return on assets yet rise net earnings.

C. decrease both rerotate on assets and also net income.

Ans: C.

Implementation of SFAS 143 needs that service providers record an ascollection and connected licapacity for costs affiliated in the remedy of environmental damages. The rise in assets will decrease rerevolve on assets and also the rise in depreciation and also accretion price will certainly mitigate net earnings.

34. A company making use of LIFO reports the following:

· COGS was $27,000.

· Beginning inventory was $6,500, and finishing inventory was $6,200.

· The start LIFO reserve was $1,200.

· The finishing LIFO reserve was $1,400.

The finest estimate of the company’s COGS on a FIFO basis would be:

A. $21,300.

B. $26,800.

C. $27,500.

Ans: B.


= COGS LIFO – (ending LIFO reserve – start LIFO reserve)


35. During duration of rising prices:

A. LIFO COGS > Weighted Median COGS > FIFO COGS.

B. LIFO COGS > Weighted Mean COGS


Ans: A.

Throughout duration of rising prices, the last systems purchased are more expensive than the existing devices. Under LIFO, the price of the last systems purchased is assigned to COGS. This higher COGS outcomes in lower earnings, as compared to the FIFO approach. As the name says, the weighted average approach is based upon mathematical averages quite than timing of purchase/ usage. Hence, COGS making use of this technique falls between that of LIFO and also FIFO.

36. Which of the complying with audit methods is the majority of likely to decrease reported revenue in the existing period?

A. Using the straight-line strategy of depreciation instead of an accelerated method.

B. Capitalizing proclaiming costs quite than expensing them in the present period.

C. Using LIFO inventory price approaches throughout a period of climbing prices.

Ans: C.

LIFO will cause lower net income than FIFO in the existing duration, in the time of a duration of climbing prices. The various other selections will tend to boost existing period income.

36. In duration of rising prices and secure or increasing inventory amounts, compared through suppliers that usage LIFO inventory audit, carriers that use the FIFO technique will have:

A. better COGS and also rnaipublishers.comced taxes.

B. better net earnings and also greater taxes.

C. lower inventory balances and also rnaipublishers.comced functioning funding.

Ans: B.

FIFO service providers have higher net income and better taxes.

References: question 1.

37. Bao Corporation, which reports under IFRS, composed dvery own its inventory of electronic components last period from its original price of € 28,000 to net realizable value of €25,000. This period, inventory at net realizable worth has increased to € 30,000. Bao should reworth this inventory to:

A. €30,000 and report a gain of €5,000 on the earnings statement.

B. €28,000 and also report a obtain of €3,000 on the earnings statement.

C. €30,000 however report a obtain of €3,000 on the earnings statement

Ans: B.

Under IFRS, inventory worths are revalued upward only to the extent they were previously created dvery own. In this case, that is from €25,000 earlier up to the original worth of €28,000. The rise is reported as acquire for the duration and will increase COGS of systems offered during the current duration.

38. Assuming secure inventory amounts, in a period of:

A. climbing prices, LIFO outcomes in higher finishing inventory and also FIFO results in higher gross profit.

B. falling prices, LIFO outcomes in better gross profit and FIFO outcomes in lower COGS.

C. increasing prices, LIFO outcomes in greater COGS and also FIFO results in greater working funding.

Ans: C.

In a period of climbing prices, LIFO outcomes in higher COGS, rnaipublishers.comced inventory balances, and lower gross profit, as compared to FIFO. In a falling price atmosphere, these results are the opposite. Working resources (current assets minus present liabilities) is better under FIFO in a climbing price setting bereason inventories are better.

Reference: Inquiry 1.

39. A firm offers the FIFO price circulation assumption. Contrasted to gross profit through a routine inventory mechanism, the firm’s gross profit with a perpetual inventory mechanism would certainly be:

A. rnaipublishers.comced.

B. better.

C. the same.

Ans: C.

For a firm using FIFO, gross profit is the very same whether the firm offers a periodic or perpetual inventory system. For a firm using LIFO or average cost, gross profit deserve to be different relying on the option of inventory device.

40. Bao Inc. presently offers the FIFO technique to account for inventory. Due to significant tax-loss carryforwards, the firm has actually an efficient taxes price of zero. Prices are climbing and inventory amounts are steady. If the company were to use LIFO instead of FIFO:

A. net revenue would be lower, and cash flows would certainly be greater.

B. cash flow would certainly remain the same, and functioning capital would certainly decrease.

C. gross margin would certainly rise, and average stockholder’s equity would certainly decrease.

Ans: B.

In the lack of taxes, tright here is no difference in cash circulation between LIFO and also FIFO. In addition, using LIFO would certainly cause rnaipublishers.comced working capital (inventory is lower). Using LIFO would cause lower net earnings bereason of a lower gross margin (COGS is higher).

41. From the point of check out of a financial analyst, when evaluating service providers that use various inventory cost assumptions, in a period of:

A. secure prices, LIFO inventory is desired to FIFO inventory.

B. decreasing prices, FIFO inventory is preferred to LIFO inventory.

C. raising prices, FIFO price of sales is desired to LIFO price of sales.

Ans: B.

The a lot of helpful approximates of inventory and also cost of sales are those that ideal approximate present cost. Whether prices are boosting or decreasing, FIFO provides a much better estimate of inventory worths, and also LIFO produces a better estimate of cost of sales. If prices are table, tright here is no distinction in between LIFO and also FIFO approximates of inventory or cost of sales.

See more: Bad Company Silver, Blue &Amp; Gold (2017 Remaster), Bad Company

42. During an accountancy period, a company has the complying with sequence of transactions via a beginning inventory of zero:



100 units at $210

80 devices at $240

90 devices at $225

90 units at $250

The company’s COGS making use of FIFO for inventory accounting, and its ending inventory utilizing LIFO, are closest to: