Kuba females decorating woven towel in the autonomous Republic the the Congo, photographed in 1970. In the past, women were the key creators of the legend Kuba textiles. Eliot Elisofon/Smithsonian Institution, nationwide Museum the African art hide caption



Kuba women decorating woven cloth in the autonomous Republic that the Congo, photographed in 1970. In the past, females were the key creators that the legendary Kuba textiles.

You are watching: What was the function of textiles in kongo culture?

Eliot Elisofon/Smithsonian Institution, national Museum of African arts

What deserve to an old item of towel tell us around the rise and fall that a kingdom? quite a lot, if girlfriend know exactly how to check out it.

That"s the premise behind a new exhibition at the Baltimore Museum the Art titled "Kuba: cloth of an Empire." the features selection of captivating patterned textiles from the Kuba Kingdom, which between the 17th and early 20th centuries was one of Africa"s largest and also most powerful societies, regulating trade in ivory and rubber in what is this particular day the southeastern region of the democratic Republic the the Congo.

The Kuba were renowned for your artistry, and also today any kind of museum that African arts in the U.S. Or Europe is likely to display Kuba sculpture, masks, beadwork or specifically textiles, which were i was delegated by royalty and also worn or presented for ceremonial occasions. The textiles room made the woven and dyed raffia palm fronds and also feature hypnotic geometric designs largely in shades of black and also tan.

In some, the designs are stitched; in others, serpentine cutouts are appliquéd ~ above a raffia backing. Some are 20 feet long and meant to it is in worn as a sheathe unisex skirt; others are 2-foot-square panels intended to it is in hung on display screen behind a royal throne.


The draft themselves most likely didn"t bring a literal symbolic meaning but to be instead assets of the creative invention the the artists, greatly women, who developed them and also whose names have been shed to time, travel and also the DRC"s troubled colonial and contemporary history. Yet they phone call a story about how the Kuba"s leaders asserted us in a transforming world, states Kevin Tervala, the museum"s associate curator of afri art, who organized the exhibition.

Tervala want to arrange the textiles chronologically and then compare them to the historic record. Yet as is regularly the case with African art that was gotten rid of from the continent throughout the early american era, the provenance that each piece — the date and also location the its origin and also the name of its maker — is murky or nonexistent. For this reason he sent out samples of the textiles to a lab in brand-new Zealand because that carbon date analysis. The method is imperfect: Carbon dating have the right to have a margin that error of as much as a hundreds years, i beg your pardon is no huge deal if you"re dating a fossil however problematic as soon as the items is no more than a pair hundred year old. Still, Tervala had the ability to make an notified guess around the bespeak in i beg your pardon the pieces were produced.



This textile would have been used as one "overskirt." It has actually been date to 1736‑1799 and also is the earliest piece in the exhibition.

Courtesy of Baltimore Museum of art

What he uncovered was the the oldest pieces had tendency to be the simplest, often a single color through a subtle design scarcely visible from more than a couple of feet away. The oldest piece in the collection, i m sorry Tervala days to the mid-1700s, is a faded blood red, v a pass out border the repeating triangles.



This textile, dated to 1807‑1869, would have actually been wrapped roughly the wearer together an overskirt. That is thought to be a unisex garment.

Courtesy the The Baltimore Museum of art

Another old piece, a skirt, is cream-colored with a smattering the L-shaped appliqués. Together time walk on, the designs become busier, and also the colors dial up your contrast. Tervala"s an individual favorite piece, i beg your pardon he days to the beforehand 1900s, is an explode of popping black-and-white angles arrayed in one off-kilter grid.


This assertive pattern, date to 1912‑1942, shows just how Kuba fabrics were supposed to reinforce imperial power by catching the eye and also not enabling it to rest. Courtesy that The Baltimore Museum of art hide caption


This assertive pattern, date to 1912‑1942, shows exactly how Kuba fabrics were supposed to reinforce royal power by catching the eye and not permitting it come rest.

Courtesy the The Baltimore Museum of art

This advancement of architecture is very closely linked to exactly how Kuba elite projected and also even attained, politics power, Tervala suggests. Transparent the 17th and also 18th centuries, ivory made the Kuba majesties fantastically rich, and also they invested their wide range in bespoke ceremonial wardrobes the broadcast their wide range to your subjects and also to various other elites. Kuba royal succession was not always patrilineal however was instead a perpetual heated jockeying for strength reminiscent the "Game that Thrones."


Royal ceremonies and parties sometimes had actually the feeling of a runway showdown, with elites contending to watch whose trends were many unique and also impressive, Tervala says. Designs necessary to scream and to it is in heard native a distance. They to be engineered to catch the eye and also not permit it to rest. The best designs were reserved for the king; an ext quotidian fads filtered under to the masses. Tervala says that the must publicly and aggressively assert strength drove textile design, particularly as, in the mid-to-late 1800s, the kings started to reckon v a new threat: Belgian colonizers scrambling for rubber.

"The designs come to be bolder in ~ moments as soon as visualizing power and also visualizing authority become more important," Tervala says. "As the economic situation changes and power erodes , the pomp and also circumstance gets boosted up. That"s when you view Kuba elites yes, really doubling under on pattern and also visibility and boldness."

The Kuba Kingdom"s wealth permitted it to resist colonization longer than other parts of the Belgian Congo, wherein King Leopold II"s mad rush because that rubber led to the brutal murder of approximately ten million Congolese, according to Adam Hochschild"s seminal history King Leopold"s Ghost.

But just before the turn of the 20th century, as the king"s iron fist was replaced by the more bureaucratic administration of the Belgian state, the Kuba kings slowly opened their doors and enabled freer trade with Europe.

Kuba textiles have actually been hot commodities ever since. They were displayed at among the very first major exhibitions the African arts in Europe, in Brussels in the late 1800s, and also at the Brooklyn Museum in 1923. The French artist Henri Matisse preserved some in his studio and also said the would regularly stare at them "waiting for something to involved me indigenous the mystery of your instinctive geometry." His 1947 paper cut-out Les Velours reportedly attracted on Kuba appliqué. Kuba textiles even appeared in episodes of Grey"s Anatomy and Frasier as archetypes of african fine art.

Market demand additionally drove Kuba artist to take it on bigger and also bolder designs, particularly after the DRC obtained its independence in 1960, says Elisabeth Cameron, an art historian and Kuba specialist at the university of California-Santa Cruz.

"Kuba artists were definitely savvy in how they produced designs and also the impact those designs had on your audiences, whether the audience be the Kuba peoples themselves or colonial officials that witnessed the Kuba courts and also performances or in published photographs that appeared throughout Europe and the USA," she says. "The visibility the bold draft is essential in reinforcing the political power that was slowly disappearing. It"s interesting to see a new take ~ above Kuba textiles the acknowledges that the Kuba together a human being were not passive in the confront of emigration — not victims."

Artists in the DRC"s Kasai province still develop textiles based on popular historic designs. Yet well-preserved historic Kuba textiles prefer those in the exhibition are significantly rare, Tervala says, due to the fact that the raffia material is susceptible to disintegration, specifically in the DRC"s tropical and savanna climates.

Those on display screen have survived in component because, together expensive ceremonial costumes, they to be worn infrequently and also taken well care of. And although the trends themselves were aggressively unique, in some ways the story they phone call is familiar.

"Fashion is always linked to status and also authority in some way," Tervala says. "This is a Kuba turn on a universal tale."

Kuba: fabric of realm is on display screen at the Baltimore Museum that Art with February 24, 2019.

See more: Toronto Blue Jays Vs Cleveland Indians Highlights (P1) August 3

Tim McDonnell is a journalist covering the environment, conflict and also related concerns in sub-Saharan Africa. Follow him top top Twitter and Instagram.