39 Describe and Explain the function of special Journals and also Their prominence to Stakeholders

The bigger the business, the better the likelihood the that organization will have a huge volume of transactions that should be videotaped in and also processed through the company’s audit information system. You’ve learned the each transaction is taped in the general journal, i beg your pardon is a chronological listing of transactions. In various other words, transactions are recorded into the basic journal as they occur. While this is correct audit methodology, it likewise can create a cumbersome general journal through which come work and also may make finding details pieces the information an extremely challenging. For example, i think customer man Smith charged things for $100 top top June 1. In the basic journal, the firm would document the following.

You are watching: Which of the following transactions is recorded in the purchases journal?


What should the full be in the accounts Payable manage Total?

Here is the information from the account receivable subsidiary ledger.


Most carriers have 4 special journals, yet there can be an ext depending ~ above the service needs. The 4 main special journals space the sales journal, purchases journal, cash disbursements journal, and cash receipts journal. These unique journals were designed because some newspaper entries take place repeatedly. Because that example, selling products for cash is constantly a debit come Cash and a credit transaction to Sales tape-recorded in the cash receipts journal. Likewise, us would record a sale of products on credit in the sales journal, together a debit to accounts receivable and a credit transaction to sales. Carriers using a perpetual inventory system likewise record a second entry because that a sale with a debit to price of goods sold and a credit to inventory. You deserve to see sample entries in (Figure).


Paying bills is taped in the cash disbursements newspaper ((Figure)) and is always a debit to accounts Payable (or one more payable or expense) and a credit transaction to Cash.


(Figure) summarizes the usual transactions in the special journals formerly illustrated.

Types and also Purposes of special JournalsJournal NameJournal PurposeAccount(s) DebitedAccount(s) Credited
Sales JournalSales top top creditAccounts Receivable, cost of items SoldSales, Inventory
Purchases JournalPurchases ~ above creditInventoryAccounts Payable
Cash Disbursements JournalPaying cashCould be:Accounts Payable, or various other accountsCash
Cash Receipts JournalReceiving cashCashCould be:Sales, account Receivable, or other accounts
General JournalAny transaction not spanned previously; adjusting and closing entriesCould be:Depreciation ExpenseCould be:Accumulated Depreciation

How will certainly you remember every one of this? Remember, “Cash Is King,” for this reason we think about cash transactions first. If you obtain cash, nevertheless of the source of the transaction, and also even if the is just a component of the transaction, the goes in the cash receipts journal. Because that example, if the company made a sale for $1,000 and also the customer gave $300 in cash and promised to salary the staying balance in the future, the entire transaction would go into the cash receipts journal, because some cash to be received, also if it to be only component of a transaction. You could not separation this journal entry in between two journals, because each transaction’s debits must equal the credits or else your newspaper totals will not balance in ~ the end of the month. Girlfriend might take into consideration splitting this transaction right into two different transactions and also considering the a cash sale for $300 and also a sale on account because that $700, but that would likewise be inappropriate. Back the balances in the basic ledger accounts would certainly technically be exactly if girlfriend did that, this is no the best approach. Great internal regulate dictates the this is a solitary transaction, connected with one invoice number top top a given date, and also should be tape-recorded in its whole in a single journal, i m sorry in this case is the cash receipts journal. If any cash is received, also if it is only a part of the transaction, the entire transaction is gotten in in the cash receipts journal. Because that this example, the transaction gone into in the cash receipts journal would have actually a debit come cash because that $300, a debit to accounts Receivable for $700, and also a credit to Sales for $1,000.

If you pay cash (usually by composing a check), for any type of reason, also if it is just a part of the transaction, the whole transaction is taped in the cash disbursements journal. Because that example, if the company purchased a building for $500,000 and gave a inspect for $100,000 as a under payment, the whole transaction would be taped in the cash disbursements journal as a credit transaction to cash for $100,000, a credit to mortgage payable because that $400,000, and also a debit to buildings for $500,000.

If the transaction does no involve cash, it will certainly be taped in among the various other special journals. If that is a credit sale (also known as a sale on account), that is tape-recorded in the sales journal. If that is a credit acquisition (also well-known as a acquisition on account), that is recorded in the purchase journal. If the is none of the above, that is tape-recorded in the general journal.

Let’s take into consideration what Gearhead Outfitters’ accountancy information system could look like. What info will company management find important? Likewise, what information could external customers of Gearhead’s gaue won reports need? do regulatory needs dictate what Gearhead requirements to monitor in its accountancy system?

Gearhead will want to recognize its jae won position, outcomes of operations, and also cash flows. Such data will assist management make decisions about the company. Likewise, outside users want this data (balance sheet, earnings statement, and also statement that cash flows) to do decisions such together whether or no to extend credit to Gearhead.

To keep precise records, agency operations should be considered. Because that example, list is purchased, sales are made, customers are billed, cash is collected, employee work and also need to be paid, and also other expenses are incurred. Every one of these work involve various recording processes. Perform will call for a purchases journal. Sales will call for a sales journal, cash receipts journal, and also accounts receivable subsidiary ledger (discussed later) journal. Payroll and other disbursements will need their own journals to accurately monitor transactions.

Such journals enable a company to record audit information and also generate gaue won statements. The data likewise provides administration with the information needed to make sound business decisions. For example, subsidiary ledgers, such together the accounts receivable ledger, carry out data about the aging and also collectability the receivables. Thus, the suitable design, implementation, and also maintenance the the accountancy information device are an essential to a that company sustainability.

What various other questions deserve to be answered with the analysis of details gathered by the accounting information system? Think in regards to the timing of list orders and also cash flow needs. Is there nonfinancial info to extract from the audit system? An accounting information device should provide the details needed because that a organization to meet its goals.

Subsidiary Ledgers

In addition to the four special journals, there room two special ledgers, the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger and also the accounts payable subsidiary ledger. The accounts receivable subsidiary ledger gives details around each person who owes the agency money, as presented in (Figure). Every colored block represents an individual’s account and shows only the quantity that human being owes the company. Notice that the subsidiary ledger offers the day of the transaction and a reference pillar to attach the transaction come the same info posted in among the special journals (or basic journal if special journals room not used)—this recommendation is normally a code that recommendations the unique journal such together SJ because that the sales unique journal, as well as the quantities owed in the debit column and the payments made in the credit column. The quantities owed by every one of the individuals, as suggested in the subsidiary ledger, are added together to type the accounts receivable manage total, and this have to equal the account Receivable balance report in the general ledger as presented in (Figure). An essential points about the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger are:

Accounts union in the general ledger is the total of every one of the individual account totals the are listed in the account receivable subsidiary ledger.All of the quantities owed to the company in the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger must equal the quantities in the accounts receivable general ledger account.
Subsidiary ledgers need to balance and agree v the basic ledger. Accountants utilizing QuickBooks and also other accounting systems may not need to perform this step, because in these systems the subsidiary ledger updates the basic ledger automatically. However, a dishonest person could manipulate accountancy records by record a smaller amount the cash receipts in the manage account 보다 is recorded on the subsidiary ledger cards. The moral accountant must be vigilant come ensure that the ledgers remain balanced and also that suitable internal controls room in location to for sure the soundness of the accounting system.

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The account payable subsidiary ledger holds the details about all of the quantities a agency owes to people and/or companies. In the account payable subsidiary ledger, each merchant (the person or agency from whom you purchased inventory or other items) has actually an account that mirrors the details of every transactions. Comparable to the account receivable subsidiary ledger, the purchases subsidiary journal suggests the date on which a transaction take it place; a reference pillar used in the very same manner together previously explained for account receivable subsidiary ledgers; and also finally, the subsidiary ledger reflects the amount charged or the lot paid. Adhering to are the transactions for abc Inc. And also XYZ Inc. The final balance suggested on each subsidiary to buy journal mirrors the lot the company owes ABC and also XYZ.




(Figure)On June 30, Isner Inc.’s bookkeeper is prepare to close the publications for the month. The accounts receivable control full shows a balance that $550, yet the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger shows full account balances of $850. The accounts receivable subsidiary ledger is presented here. Can you help find the mistake?


(Figure)Why must the accounts Receivable account in the general ledger match the totals of every the subsidiary accounts Receivable accounts?

(Figure)If a customer owed your company $100 top top the first day the the month, then purchased $200 of goods on credit transaction on the fifth and paid you $50 top top fifteenth, the customer’s ending balance for the month would display a (debit or credit) of exactly how much?


accounts payable subsidiary ledgerspecial ledger that consists of information around all vendors and the amounts we fan them; the total of all accounts in the accounts payable subsidiary ledger must equal the total of account payable manage account in the general ledgeraccounts receivable controlaccounts unification account in the general ledgeraccounts receivable subsidiary ledgerspecial ledger that consists of information around all customers and the amounts they owe; the full of every accounts in the account receivable subsidiary ledger must equal the full of accounts receivable regulate account in the basic ledgercash disbursements journalspecial journal that is supplied to document outflows the cash; every time cash pipeline the business, usually once we worry a check, we record in this journalcash receipts journalspecial newspaper that is used to record inflows that cash; every time we obtain checks and also currency native customers and also others, we document these cash receipts in this journalpurchases journalspecial newspaper that is used to document purchases of merchandise inventory on credit; it always debits the merchandise inventory account (if utilizing the perpetual list method) or the to buy account (if making use of the regular method)sales journalspecial newspaper that is used to record all sales on credit; it always debits account receivable and also credits sales, and if the agency uses the perpetual inventory method it also debits cost of products sold and credits was inventoryspecial journalbook of original entry the is provided to document transactions that a similar type in enhancement to the general journal